How hard was it to defect to the Eastern European countries and the USSR during the cold war? What about Cuba then and now?
It's been done before so it is not impossible.
As for Cuba, if you are in America, you just need to get to Canada or Mexico. From there you can reach Cuba.
"Don't hate on me bro" - Loz
during the era of the NEP, access into the Soviet Union was particularly easy--even for Americans. As you probably know, many American workers were contracted during this time to help modernize the Soviet Union after the destruction of Russian Civil War. Access into the USSR became more stringent due to security reasons in the 30's, and eventually it became an issue of obtaining citizenship if you wanted to remain in the Soviet Union beyond your given Visa date. Understandably, your process for citizenship would require one to remain in the country for an indefinite amount of time, and up, during, and after the GPW this was an even bigger issue. Most of the laws on the subject dealt accordingly with how to contrive a single "Soviet" citizenship out of the diverse population of the 15 federative republics within the Union.
See the 1936 and 1977 Constitutions of the Soviet Union.
been proven to be agitators against the Soviet Union, had been denied access prior to a certain date or had declined Soviet citizenship (after previously emigrating) after a given date, or were politically unsound. The law for incoming citizens was applied respectively to the Constitution, the most effective being the 1936 Constitution which stipulated the role and make-up of a Soviet citizen.
Could you go back and forth?
Between republics? Or, between the West and the USSR?
Kim Philby defected to the USSR via a merchant ship from lebanon.
Lee Harvey Oswald (the fool) flew back and forth.
as an american citizen with a visa, or as a soviet citizen trying to get back to america after defection?
Only via this landmark
Exchange of spies on Glienicker bridge in Berlin
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