Soviet-Empire.com U.S.S.R. and communism historical discussion.
[ Active ]
[ Login ]
Log-in to remove these advertisements.

U-boats in Soviet waters and Soviet ASW action (Black Sea)

POST REPLY
Soviet cogitations: 288
Defected to the U.S.S.R.: 20 Feb 2010, 11:57
Resident Admiral
Post 19 Mar 2019, 11:15
The naval warfare on the Eastern Front during the WW2 (Great Patriotic War) was the largest conflict involving the Soviet Navy and without doubt it was the greatest naval war ever faced by a socialist or communist nation. In five years of warfare (excluding preliminary conflicts like the Winter War), the Soviet Navy endured times of sacrifice and losses, fighting against a formidable foe and writing bloody and glorious pages of naval war history poorly known in the western world.
Decades after the end of the war, destruction and confidentiality of documents make numerous details still unknown, it is only after modern-day researches of authors that a number of false myths and wrong claims (committed by all sources, post-war) receive a neutral assessment.
Contrary to the popular western belief that the naval warfare played no real part in the war, the Soviet Navy engaged in specific operations in the different areas of competence of the Fleets (Baltic, Black Sea, Northern, Pacific, and other Flotillas).
During the decade before the war, the Soviet Navy initiated large programs of expansion with a number of warships entering service (including cruisers and destroyers): such plans not completed in time, and by the time of the Nazi invasion, the shipbuilding programs stalled or diverted to wartime emergency plans.
The Soviet leadership, wisely realized how the submarine warfare was a key of strategic success and despite all classes of warships increased in numbers, submarines received a peculiar attention (with over 200 submarines in 1941!).

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Work is a cross-reference between modern Russian sources (sovboat.ru, author Miroslav Morozov on tsushima.su) and modern German sources (historisches-marinearchiv.de)
Similar works and tables made on English-based sites (uboat.net and Wikipedia) and older English literature are not updated and contain a number of mistakes.
Image credits (c) Navypedia.org



-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


During the World War II, the German U-boat operations against Allied convoy was one of the most prominent naval strategic operations.
German submarines inflicted heavy losses to the Allies, focusing especially in harassing the Atlantic supply lines to the United Kingdom.
An increase of British-American anti-submarine warfare (ASW) capabilities resulted in growing losses for the “Wolf Packs” of U-boats lurking in Atlantic and the conclusion of the Battle of the Atlantic was a strategic global victory for the Allies. On the Eastern Front, the Kriegsmarine submarine operations were relatively limited in numbers and strategic goals.



The U-boats operations in Black Sea begun in 1942 with a disappointing result of absolute lack of victories.
The next two years of was saw the U-boats scoring modest successes while attempting to harass the Soviet shipping line especially aiming for tankers but scoring little success compared to the actual naval traffic.

Soviet ASW forces failed to sink enemy U-boats with depth charges: especially in 1944, they operated actively but the German boats avoided extra risks and often withdrawn in face of strong escort.


German U-boats in Black Sea suffered 3 losses and sunk or destroyed 18 Soviet ships (plus one Romanian ship) and damaged 10 ship.
This make a final balance score of 6:33 between victories and losses.


Soviet military ships lost include the minesweepers T-410 Vzryv and T-411 Zashchitnik, the auxiliary minesweeper T-11 Dzhalita, the submarine chaser MO-376, the patrol boat SKA-088, the hydrographic boat Shtorm (also rated as patrol) and the small landing crafts DB-36 and DB-37.
Torpedo boat Shtorm, auxiliary minesweeper T-486 and four patrol boats (SKA-098, SKA-099, SKA-0132) suffered damages.

While the overall balance score of victory/losses is close to the result in Arctic Sea, the sheer number of victories and their importance is less remarkable.
The U-boats originally intended to strike Soviet tankers sailing on Georgian coast, but effectively they sunk/destroyed only 2 tankers inflicting damages to other 2 (most of not-military targets were schooners and small boats).


---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

The Italian Regia Marina was the second most active Axis submarine force in the Black Sea, possessing 6 midget submarines (effectively used as coastal submarines). Excluding few disproved war claims, this small force achieved only one (but significant) victory: the Soviet submarine ShCh-203.
It was effectively the only real submarine loss caused by another submarine in Black Sea during WW2.

The Italians however paid this victory with a heavy price, because it was the only Submarine force opposing the Soviet Navy in WW2 to achieve a negative victory-loss kill ratio: one victory for three losses caused by the Soviet forces.

Contrary to some western and Romanian claims, these midget submarines never effectively operated under Romanian Navy: after a short temporary de jure control, they passed to the Navy of the pro-German “Italian Social Republic” fascist state established by Mussolini after his release.



----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


At the beginning of War, the Romanian Navy possessed a single old submarine that was effectively the most active Axis offensive naval asset in Black Sea in 1941. Lack of combat experience and the very same age of the vessel resulted in a single failed torpedo attack (despite old and modern Romanian claim of success, it was just one of the many instances of submarine’s commander over-claim).

The subordination of the Romanian Navy to the Kriegsmarine delayed the expected service of two modern submarines: operating for little time in 1944, they saw heavy presence of Soviet ASW escorts and committed no attack. Romanian shipyards forced to repair German U-boats and S-boats as priority rather than build new own vessels.

All the three Romanian vessels seized by Soviet Union after political decision (no direct action).
In short, the Romanian Navy claim the “status” of less effective Axis (or Axis cobelligerent) submarine force during the WW2 alongside the similarly ineffective submarine component of the Royal Thai Navy.


-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


1941


3 August 1941
Romanian submarine NMS Delfinul lightly damaged in harbor (splinter holing the penetrating the conning tower) during a Soviet air raid by Pe-2 and Il-4 bombers.


20 August 1941
Romanian submarine NMS Delfinul, on return from her fruitless third patrol, encountered the Soviet submarine M-33.
The Soviet submarine launched a torpedo, missing the Romanian vessel that opened fire with her 13mm machine guns (without scoring hits) and both vessels parted away. Romanian sources wrongly describe this as the “only submarine vs submarine” action in Black Sea during WW2 (the Italian CB-class midget submarines were particularly active in anti-submarine patrols).
Image

Photo of NMS Delfinul. During the encounter both attacks failed and the two submarines pulled back.

5 November 1941
Romanian submarine NMS Delfinul launched one torpedo against the Soviet auxiliary minelayer Ostrovsky, missing her.
Often incorrectly credited the sinking of Soviet tanker Uralles (1975 GRT) actually sunk by air raid on 29 October, alternatively Romanian sources also believed she damaged the tanker Kreml’ (7611 GRT) but she actually received mine damage 2 days earlier. This failed attack was the only submarine attack committed by the Romanian Navy during the War.
Interestingly, Romanian sources persists claiming a victory out of crewmember “hearing an explosion”, followed by alleged depth charges attack but it would not be the only case during war when a unexperienced crew claimed rumors of explosions as proof of victory (a widespread mistake also in the Soviet Navy).


27 June 1941
During the last war patrol of Romanian submarine NMS Delfinul in Yalta area, the Romanian vessel reported a heavy attack by airdropped bombs, causing light damages. There was no Soviet attack in reality, and it was either a German friendly fire attack or an attack intended against Soviet convoy with fragments hitting the hull.


28 June 1941
Romanian submarine NMS Delfinul strafed by plane, with machine-gun hits on conning tower. In reality, no Soviet plane committed such attack and it was likely a German friendly-fire attack.


1 July 1941
Romanian submarine NMS Delfinul reported a massive attack by “depth charges”, finally pulling back from her last fruitless war patrol. Once more, no actual Soviet attack and it is likely the submarine overheard explosion from a nearby German air attack against Soviet convoy.


After her last mission, NMS Delfinul placed out of service and never returned operative.
The Romanian Navy intended to complete the two submarines NMS Rechinul and NMS Marsuinul, but such plans delayed by the effective Kriegsmarine’s control over the Romanian Navy: Romanian shipyards received orders to focus on repairing battle damages of German vessels, delaying entry of service of both submarines until 1944.
Soviet cogitations: 288
Defected to the U.S.S.R.: 20 Feb 2010, 11:57
Resident Admiral
Post 19 Mar 2019, 11:21
1942


13 June 1942
The Soviet motor torpedo boat D-3, lead-ship of her class and only representative in the Black Sea Fleet, made a lonely attack on harbor, successfully torpedoing and sinking Italian midget submarine CB-5.
It was the only Soviet sinking achieved by Soviet Navy with motor torpedo boat torpedo action, the only occurred on Italian target and the only scored by Soviet Navy’s boat or ship in Black Sea.
Some Western/Italian sources wrongly believe the submarine sunk after an air raid, actually planes attacked before the unrelated motor torpedo boat action.
Image

Beautiful color-photo of unidentified Italian midget submarine CB on Black Sea
Image

Photo of D-3 motor torpedo boat: was a quite active vessel (lead-ship prototype of her own class) alongside the fellow lead-ship SM-3 (prototype of never realized variant). Both saw active service in Black Sea because were the only Soviet motor torpedo boats with longer endurance than widespread G-5 class.


15 June 1942
Italian midget submarine CB-3 hit the Soviet submarine L-5 with both torpedoes, but each of them was a dud!
Usually Italian sources wrongly believe CB-3 torpedoed and sunk the Soviet submarine S-32 (actually sunk during her last mission on 26 June, because of a German He-111 plane).


18 June 1942
Italian midget submarine CB-2 hit the Soviet submarine M-31 with both torpedoes, but each of them was a dud!
Interestingly it appears it was an incident identical to the one occurred three days earlier. Technical problems of torpedoes was the reason for both the failures.
Usually Italian sources wrongly believe CB-2 sunk Soviet submarine ShCh-213 (actually leaving for her last mission on 13 September 1942) or even ShCh-306 (a Baltic Fleet submarine!).

On the same day, Italian midget submarine CB-2 met a couple of Soviet motorboat in surface and received machinegun hits on the conning tower by Soviet soldiers onboard the boats.


19 June 1942
During an air raid in harbor, Soviet Pe-2 bombers inflicted heavy damages to Italian midget submarines CB-2 and CB-3.
While both eventually repaired, it was a good success because effectively reduced to just to three operative boats (CB-1, CB-4 and CB-6) the Italian submarines capable to take sea and attempt interdicting the Soviet evacuation of Sevastopol. The three left midget submarines scored no successes in 1942.


5 November 1942
German submarine U-24 missed the Soviet auxiliary minesweeper T-492 with two torpedo; a third subsequent torpedo hit the hull but did not exploded (dud). The Soviet vessel engaged with gunfire the surfaced submarine, scoring hits with machineguns (light damages) and forcing the U-24 to dive and flee.


27 December 1942
Soviet motor torpedo boat TK-35, on convoy escort duty, launched depth charges and lightly damaged German submarine U-9.
Damage inflicted on torpedo tubes made submarine fail a subsequent torpedo attack on 3 January.
Soviet cogitations: 288
Defected to the U.S.S.R.: 20 Feb 2010, 11:57
Resident Admiral
Post 19 Mar 2019, 12:00
1943


13 February 1943
Soviet DB-3 bomber attacked the German submarine U-9, inflicting damage to the periscope.

On the same day, four Soviet biplanes I-15 launched bombs against the German submarine U-19 causing only slight damages.
Identity of attackers for each submarine (both on offensive patrol and attacked the same day) clearly established by U-19 account, because German crewmembers observed the four biplanes.
Image

I-15 biplane was a very famous fighter that saw service during Spanish Civil War. During WW2 with predominance of more modern fighters, transferred to other duties.


31 March 1943
German submarine U-24 torpedoed and damaged the Soviet tanker Kreml’ (7611 GRT)
Soviet reaction included depth charges launched by Soviet minesweepers T-406 Iskatel, T-407 Mina, T-409 Garpun and 2 Soviet MBR-2 seaplanes.
Damage inflicted to U-24 was not heavy, but enough to force the submarine to return at base.
Image

Painting of minesweeper Mina.


28 May 1943
Soviet motor torpedo boat TK-106, on convoy escort duty, launched depth charges and lightly damaged German submarine U-9.
Image

The line means "Muscovites Artisans", probably on reference to the fundraising to build the unit.


4 June 1943
A pair of Soviet Il-2 attack aircrafts attacked with bombs the German submarine U-18, damaging the periscope and forcing to sail back to base.


13 June 1943
A pair of Il-2 attack aircrafts and a single seaplane MBR-2 spotted the German submarine U-24. Soviet motor torpedo boats TK-12, TK-32 and patrol boat SKA-062 launched depth charges inflicting light damages: this was not enough to force the submarine back to base and could not prevent the subsequent attack of 15 June.


15 June 1943
German submarine U-24 torpedoed and sunk Soviet minesweeper T-411 Zashchitnik. 26 crewmembers killed and 26 survivors saved by patrol boats SKA-0101 and SKA-0138. Interestingly, the target was one of the two “Fugas class” minesweepers sunk by enemy submarine during WW2 (both losses occurred in Black Sea).


26 June 1943
Soviet seaplane MBR-2 damaged with bombs the German submarine U-20, forcing to sail back to base.
Image

Photo of MBR-2: the most common Soviet seaplanes during war, they never sunk an enemy submarine, but their constant patrol activities in Black Sea (integrated with other ASW forces) proved invaluable to discourage and ward off U-boats attacks.


30 July 1943
German submarine U-24 torpedoed and destroyed Soviet tanker Emba (7886 GRT). She was already a stationary ship after damages suffered by air raid and mine between January and February. However she retained a military use, because was used a stationary depot ship.


11 August 1943
Soviet patrol boat SKA-0111 lightly damaged with depth charges the German submarine U-24. Not enough to force back to base and prevent subsequent attack.


22 August 1943
German submarine U-24 sunk with gunfire and demolition charges the Soviet small landing crafts DB-36 and DB-37
6 sailors captured (3 for each craft). Both landing crafts towed by patrol boat SKA-0188 but she cut the towing lines and returned fire unsuccessfully.


24 August 1943
German submarine U-23 sunk with gunfire and close-quarter fight (hand grenades) the Soviet hydrographic boat Shkval.
Often described as a patrol boat, she was effectively armed and made resistance but without success: 3 crewmembers died, 7 reached coast on a lifeboat.


26 August 1943
Italian midget submarine CB-4 torpedoed and sunk the Soviet submarine ShCh-203 while sailing on specific anti-submarine patrol.
After the first year of Italian operations, the German command suggested to deploy the midget-submarines only on defensive actions because the little endurance.
It was effectively the only real confirmed Italian submarine victory in Black Sea; also it was the only submarine vs submarine sinking occurred in this area.
Image

Photo of ShCh-203 before her loss.


29 August 1943
German submarine U-18 torpedoed and sunk Soviet auxiliary minesweeper T-11 Dzhalita
15 crewmembers killed, 23 survivors saved by patrol boat SKA-0108. Some sources mistakenly credit the victory to U-24.
Image

Unique small minesweeper, intended (during WWI) as tugboat but completed only postwar first as dispatch vessel and then converted as minesweeper.


30 August 1943
German submarine U-18 damaged with gunfire Soviet patrol boat SKA-0132. Engagement interrupted by Soviet searchlights from shore.
SKA-0132 was the old prototype of MO-1 type submarine chasers (predecessor of the numerous MO-4).


31 August 1943
Two Soviet KOR-2 seaplanes and nine MBR-2 seaplanes attacked with aerial depth charges the German submarine U-9, inflicting damages.
Image

Photo of a KOR-2 seaplane onboard Soviet cruiser Molotov. Later reclassified as Be-4, only 44 seaplanes of this kind were built.


15 September 1943
The last notable action of Italian midget-submarines is also quite mysterious.
According Italian sources, midget submarine CB-1 intercepted on sea a special-purpose enemy “barge” carrying frogmen and sunk her with torpedo.
The explosion was reportedly so close that inflicted damage to the very same CB-1. There was no real Soviet frogmen activity in the Black Sea during the whole war (only in Baltic) and landing of special-operation agents done only by Soviet submarines dispatching agents on inflatable boats on night.
It appears clear CB-1 attacked an unidentified target (possibly Soviet submarine A-2), but torpedo exploded just out of the tube, inflicting damage to the midget submarine.
It is also possible that Italian crew intentionally reported the claim to cover-up the damage and impress the German command: on 8 September the Italian government signed armistice with Allies, while some Italian sailors in Black Sea declared their loyalty to fascism and Nazi Germany, there was much mistrust.


21 September 1943
A soviet Yak-2 reconnaissance plane (a very rare aircraft!) spotted the German submarine U-18 and inflicted light damages with two aerial depth charges.
Image

Photo of a Yak-2 plane: likely the one attacking U-18 was among the very few left in 1943!


27 September 1943
Romanian submarine NMS Marsuinul (not yet operative), suffered 1 crewmember wounded during a Soviet air raid on harbor by bombers Il-4.


15 October 1943
German submarine U-23 torpedoed and damaged Soviet auxiliary minesweeper T-486. The submarine previously missed a merchant and suffered a counter-attack by convoy escort.


22 October 1943
German submarine U-24 suffered minor damage after a single depth charge launched by unidentified escort vessel while attempting to approach a convoy.


24 October 1943
While attempting to attack the same convoy of two days earlier, U-24 suffered damages by heavy reaction with depth charges launched from Soviet minesweepers T-401 Tral, T-412 Arseniy Rasskin and patrol boats SKA-082, SKA-0102, SKA-0122. Damage was not enough to force breaking the patrol.


23 October 1943
German submarine U-23 torpedoed and sunk Soviet merchant (scow) Tanais (180 GRT). 11 killed and 10 survivors.


25 October 1943
German submarine U-23 shelled and sunk an unnamed Soviet fishing boat (3 prisoners).
Interestingly, this success not reported by German and western sources, but confirmed by Soviet data.


31 October 1943
German submarine U-24 torpedoed and sunk Soviet patrol boat SKA-088 (interestingly, she was of early MO-3 type).


18 November 1943
German submarine U-18 torpedoed and damaged Soviet tanker Josif Stalin (7745 GRT). Ship later towed and repaired.


20 November 1943
Soviet patrol boats SKA-031, SKA-0141, SKA-0512 and a single seaplane Chye-2 (a rare aircraft!) attacked with depth charges the German submarine U-18. For once, damage inflicted turned heavy: submarine forced to sail back to base and needed repairs for two months.
Image

The Chyetverikov MDR-6 seaplane (Chye-2) was extremely rare: only 17 built (not 27 as reported by western sources), but they saw service until 1946 (not retired in 1942 as sometimes reported).


29 November 1943
German submarine U-20 torpedoed and lightly damaged Soviet tanker Peredovik (1846 GRT): torpedo was a dud, but it caused a small hole because of the impact.
Soviet cogitations: 288
Defected to the U.S.S.R.: 20 Feb 2010, 11:57
Resident Admiral
Post 19 Mar 2019, 12:41
1944

16 January 1944
German submarine U-20 torpedoed and sunk Soviet tanker Vayyan Kutur’ye (7602 GRT) (Cargo: Petrol and oil).
Tanker raised and repaired after the conflict.


31 March 1944
During an air raid on Fedosiya Harbor by 18 Il-2 attack aircrafts with bombs and strafing, German submarine U-9 received moderate damages (commander WIA).


5 April 1944
German submarine U-23 damaged with gunfire Soviet patrol boat SKA-099. The submarine mistakenly believed to have sunk the enemy boat.


7 April 1944
A mine laid by German submarine U-20 sunk the Soviet barge Rion (187 GRT).

On the same day, German submarine U-18 damaged with gunfire Soviet patrol boat SKA-098
Interestingly, this success not reported by German and western sources, but confirmed by Soviet data.


5 May 1944
German submarine U-9 damaged with gunfire the Soviet schooner Burevestnik
Interestingly, this success not reported by German and western sources, but confirmed by Soviet data.


11 May 1944
German submarine U-9 torpedoed and damaged the Soviet torpedo boat Shtorm. The torpedo boat was escorting a tanker alongside a minesweeper, smaller boats and three MBR-2 seaplanes.
Interestingly, after Soviet Navy put most cruisers and destroyers on hold after losses in 1943, the torpedo boat (and her sister-ship) was the largest Soviet active warship in Black Sea. A Soviet Catalina seaplane (or possible other aircrafts) inflicted light damages to U-9, with bombs.
Image

Photo of U-9: she was the less successful U-boat in term ships sunk in Black Sea, but her two victories included the Shtorm. Interestingly, U-9 would be the most significant victim of Soviet anti-submarine efforts.
Image

Photo of Shtorm. Rated as "Guard Ships" by Soviet Navy, they were effectively Torpedo boats by western standard, even if they never launched torpedoes during the war.

On that same day, Romanian submarine NMS Marsuinul suffered a heavy friendly-fire attack by Croat submarine chasers of German KFK-type, with light damage.
Ironically, this was her single war campaign. The “Ustasha” fascist Croat volunteers operated a flotilla of submarine chasers but saw only limited encounters with enemy. The submarine did not desisted, but during the whole month of May, NMS Marsuinul suffered depth-charges attacks by Soviet units on 7 separate days (plus one attack by seaplanes), without further damages, but enough to force the submarine to desist.
Image

Unique Romanian-built submarine, originally intended as minelayer but never acted in such role during her short time of service.
Seized by Soviet Navy as TS-2 but sunk in harbor (with the loss of 14 men) due accidental explosion of German torpedo in February 1945 and eventually scrapped.



12 May 1944
German submarine U-24 torpedoed and heavily damaged Soviet submarine chaser MO-376. 20 KIA, 1 survivor.
Damage so heavy that declared total loss. Most source name her with the patrol boat designation “SKA-0XX”, but she was effectively named “MO-“
Image

Photo of sister-ship MO-328 post-war. Part of "OD-200" class, with the motor torpedo boat variant (TM-200) was war-time project originally intended to replace the D-3 and MO-4 classes. While the TM-200 design was disfavoured, the submarine chasers saw service in war.


17 May 1944
Soviet seaplane MBR-2 (and possibly Soviet patrol boats) inflicted light damages on German submarine U-9 with depth charges after a failed convoy attack.


27 May 1944
German submarine U-24 damaged with gunfire the Soviet schooner MSh-14.
Soviet coastal artillery returned fire with 76mm, inflicting light damages to U-24 but also few casualties (1 KIA, 2 WIA).
Interestingly, German misidentified the attacked schooner for a couple of patrol boats (especially since U-24 received fire, German believed it was return fire from the attacked patrol boats).
Soviet forces however report absence of patrol boats and responsibility of coastal artillery for the attack on submarine.


29 May 1944
German submarine U-23 torpedoed and sunk the Soviet tug Smelyy (71 tons), 11 crewmembers killed.


2 June 1944
German submarine U-23 sunk with gunfire an unnamed small Soviet fishing boat
Interestingly, this success not reported by German and western sources, but confirmed by Soviet data.


19 June 1944
German submarine U-20 torpedoed and sunk Soviet passenger ship Pestel (1850 GRT). 11 killed and 48 survivors.
The attack occurred off Trebzon, in Turkish neutral waters and the vessel was unescorted (eight patrol boats waited for her outside the border).


24 June 1944
German submarine U-20 sunk with gunfire the small Soviet fishing boat n°26 (ext. 15 tons)
German and Western sources identified the boat as the small landing craft DB-26, but it appears it was a case of homonymy.


27 June 1944
German submarine U-19 torpedoed and sunk the Soviet barge n°75 (1000 tons). 4 killed, 1 survivor.
The empty barge towed (alongside a second barge) by Soviet tug Vezhilov and escorted by six patrol boats and three MBR-2 seaplanes.


28 June 1944
Romanian submarine NMS Rechinul received depth charges from two Soviet MO-4 class patrol boats (so far unidentified), with light damages. After two other similar depth charges attacks received on 19 and 23 July, the submarine returned from her second and last campaign without successes.
Image

Photo of the unique Romanian submarine NMS Rechinul, while serving in the Soviet Navy post-war as TS-1.


20 August 1944
Raid on Costanta
The main Axis naval base in Black Sea suffered a heavy surprise air attack committed by A-20 and Pe-2 bombers.
Past Soviet air raids on harbors (in all fronts) usually inflicted minor moderate damages, but on this rare occurrence, the Soviet planes inflicted massive damages sinking and damaging many vessels.
The German submarine force effectively halved after this attack: German submarine U-9 sunk in harbor after direct bomb hit. German submarines U-18 and U-24 suffered both heavy damages. Differently from the other three undamaged vessels, it was impossible to evacuate these two U-boats (due Soviet ground advance) and Germans scuttled them as consequence (both qualify as Soviet full victories, considering the undamaged U-boats maintained offensive patrols until September).
German submarine U-19 suffered light damages, but remained operative.
Interestingly, also the Italian midget submarines: CB-4 and CB-6 suffered heavy damages (1 sailor killed). Both vessels almost operative (differently from not-operative CB-1 and CB-2) and could have been easily put on operation in August 1944 alongside CB-3 (that made 1 patrol). Many sources describe the Italian CB-class as “scuttled” in harbor to prevent capture like happened to U-18 and U-24 but this reasonably they likely just remained in a semi-sunk status after the attack.
It is false to identify them as “Romanian”: while briefly assigned de-jure to the Romanian Navy on December 1943 (never carried out patrols, despite Romanian claim) but by January 1944, they were already in hands of the Italian Social Republic (pro-German fascist state).
Image

Photo of Douglas A-20 bomber in Soviet service. The Soviet naval bomber groups (including torpedo-bomber squadrons) favored the American aircraft, in the end 1/3 of the aircrafts built transferred to Soviet Union. 14 of such planes took part at the heavy raid on the harbor.
Image

Photo of U-9, raised by Soviets, showing clear damage by bomb hit. Officially integrated in the Soviet Navy as TS-16, but repair never completed and eventually scrapped. U-18 and U-24 both raised but only expended as targets in 1947.
Soviet Navy also recovered four Italian midget-submarines: Likely, they were CB-1, CB-2 (both not operative by summer 1944) and CB-4, CB-6.
Soviet sources officially describe also CB-3, in place of CB-6, but according Italian reports she scuttled in different position after an attempt to patrol. All midget-submarines retired in 1945 due bad technical conditions, but studied before scrapping.



25 August 1944
Italian midget-submarine CB-3 scuttled on sea by crew after a failed attempt (the previous day) to intercept Soviet ships in Romanian waters.
Two other survived Italian midget submarines, CB-1 and CB-2, undamaged during the Air Raid of 20 June, were in bad operative status and could not sail both eventually seized by Soviet ground forces.


1 September 1944
German submarine U-23 launched torpedoes against the Constanta harbor: Romania now sided with Soviet Union and leaving no harbor for the U-boats.
While a destroyer was claimed it, a torpedo crippled the Romanian merchant Oituz (2686 GRT), later declared a total loss.


2 September 1944
German submarine U-19 torpedoed and sunk Soviet minesweeper T-410 Vzryv. Soviets suspected the Romanian Navy of complicity with the German U-boats, because the Romanian minelayer NMS Amiral Murgescu not attacked. While a direct complicity appears unlikely, this allowed the Soviet Navy to demand full seizure of the Romanian Fleet.


10 September 1944
Running out of fuel, with no harbor to sail and effectively trapped inside the Black Sea, German submarines U-19, U-20 and U-23 scuttled in Turkish waters to avoid the capture. Their loss was the effective end of submarine warfare in the Black Sea during WW2.
Alternative Display:
Mobile view
More Forums: The History Forum. The UK Politics Forum.
© 2000- Soviet-Empire.com. Privacy.