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Soviet submarines in Baltic (re-work updated 2019)

POST REPLY
Soviet cogitations: 287
Defected to the U.S.S.R.: 20 Feb 2010, 11:57
Resident Admiral
Post 16 Jun 2013, 14:37
The naval warfare on the Eastern Front during the WW2 (Great Patriotic War) was the largest conflict involving the Soviet Navy and without doubt it was the greatest naval war ever faced by a socialist or communist nation. In five years of warfare (excluding preliminary conflicts like the Winter War), the Soviet Navy endured times of sacrifice and losses, fighting against a formidable foe and writing bloody and glorious pages of naval war history poorly known in the western world.
Decades after the end of the war, destruction and confidentiality of documents make numerous details still unknown, it is only after modern-day researches of authors that a number of false myths and wrong claims (committed by all sources, post-war) receive a neutral assessment.
Contrary to the popular western belief that the naval warfare played no real part in the war, the Soviet Navy engaged in specific operations in the different areas of competence of the Fleets (Baltic, Black Sea, Northern, Pacific, and other Flotillas).
During the decade before the war, the Soviet Navy initiated large programs of expansion with a number of warships entering service (including cruisers and destroyers): such plans not completed in time, and by the time of the Nazi invasion, the shipbuilding programs stalled or diverted to wartime emergency plans.
The Soviet leadership, wisely realized how the submarine warfare was a key of strategic success and despite all classes of warships increased in numbers, submarines received a peculiar attention (with over 200 submarines in 1941!).

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The Baltic Fleet was a priority for the Navy and its submarine force was significantly large by the time of Winter War and the German invasion in 1941. The short conflict with Finland gifted much-needed battle experience but there was little time to absorb the numerous lessons of the conflict: interestingly, while the imposed blockade to Finland was not effective, submarines could boast their first victories scored since the Civil War.
The first operations against Germans hampered by constant over-estimation of enemy anti-submarine forces (similarly to what happened to Pacific Fleet in 1945), and operations cut short by the bloody retreats to Leningrad.
Despite the high losses suffered by the first year of war and the subsequent Siege of Leningrad, the Navy correctly assessed submarines as the best offensive asset and they were dispatched during 1942 to sail out of the Gulf of Finland and harass German shipping lines (especially with hope to interdict the supply of iron ore from Sweden). Soviet submarines sunk some ships, and suffered own losses, but Germans were caught unprepared delaying or stopping some merchants: it can be argued that these delays were the best result achieved by Soviet Baltic submarines, rather than the material losses inflicted.
The following year, Germans and Finnish forces focused in preventing a repetition of the Soviet submarine campaign, placing extensive barrages of mines and anti-submarines nets, effectively closing the Gulf of Finland.
Soviet submarines attempted to penetrate the fields and nets, but after losing some boats, the Navy decided to postpone operations.
When Finland abandoned the Axis, Soviet submarine could resume their operations in summer 1944 exploiting the same Finnish harbors and avoiding the mine barrages: thanks this (and German anti-submarine forces once again unprepared), the Soviet Navy lost only 2 submarines in the last two years of war. Interestingly, the Baltic Fleet made great efforts to finish a number of submarines despite the dire situation of the Siege of Leningrad, making their contribution for the final operations (particularly important was the minelayer submarine L-21 and the large “Katyusha” class submarines).
Victories were far more numerous, and even if they did not score the same strategic impact of Black Sea operations, included also shocking losses as the sinking of large vessels Wilhelm Gustloff, General Steuben and Goya with massive German human casualties.
Baltic Fleet submarines also scored better results in terms of enemy military warships compared to other Fleets: a single Type-39 (Elbing-class) fleet torpedo boat and two Type-35 torpedo boats sunk on mines laid by Soviet submarines.

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SOURCES:

Work is an essentially based on the Russian site Sovboat.ru and work of author Miroslav Morozov: these are the top modern and most updated sources of Soviet Submarine warfare in WW2. German site historisches-marinearchiv.de is also a relatively good source.
Causes of many Soviet losses is better assessed only on such sites because of constant updates received in the last decades from the wreck-diving groups in Baltic, disproving many old claims and formulating new updated assessment. Significantly, there are many widespread claims of unreal victories by the Finnish Navy based on old ‘80s and ‘90s sources, nowadays refuted by modern analysis and direct evidence but still retained in certain American (and Finnish) literature.
Lists of Soviet successes and victories made in other sites (especially English literature) like Uboat.net and Wikipedia are NOT good sources, including many mistakes generated by ‘90s works.
Similar works and tables made on English-based sites (uboat.net and wikipedia) and older English literature are not updated and contain a number of mistakes.
Image credits (c) Navypedia.org



Summary table of confirmed Soviet submarines successes (Baltic) including Winter War.

ShCh class (24 units) 16 battle losses 23 ships sunk 8 ships damaged
S class (13 units) 12 battle losses 12 ships sunk 5 ships damaged 1 unconfirmed ship damaged
L class (4 units) 1 battle losse 16 ships sunk 3 ships damaged 3 unconfirmed ships sunk
K class (6 units) no battle losses 7 ships sunk
D class (1 unit) no battle losses 1 ship sunk 1 ship damaged
P class (3 units) 1 battle loss -
Kalev class (2 units) 1 battle loss 2 ships sunk 1 ship damaged 2 unconfirmed ships sunk
Ronis class (2 units) no battle losses (both scuttled in harbor) -
M class (22units) 9 battle losses -
B-2 and L-55 (2 units, auxiliary service) no losses -

Total 79 units with 40 battle losses with 61 ships sunk, 18 ships damaged (counting only confirmed).
This make a final balance score of 1.52 : 1 between victories (sinking) and losses.
Enemy military ships lost include submarines U-144 and U-367, torpedo boat T-3, T-5, T-34 , auxiliary gunboat LAT-7, patrol ship V-2022 and a minesweeper-launch sunk and were damaged patrol ship Vs-302, landing barge F-188.
The other confirmed victims were 53 merchants, tankers, transports, trawlers, and schooners that were sunk, destroyed or damaged without being repaired. Other 15 units were damaged and remained/returned to service


Lists of submarines


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Shcuka series III
ShCh-301 (lost 28 Aug 1941 mine from field Finnish minelayers Riilahti and Ruotsinsalmi, during Tallinn Evacuation. 13 or 14 crewmembers immediately survived the sinking, but the merchant that rescued them also sunk. In the end only 2 survived, including commander later died on ShCh-402 in 1942) )
ShCh-302 (lost Oct 1942 mine from German fields “Nashorn”, “Seeigel” or “Juminda”(note: wreck found in 2019)))
ShCh-303 Received the Guards Badge(even if scored only one real victory).
21/May/42 a unique desertion episode during war for a Soviet submarine during the war: a single traitor sabotaged the radio and sealed himself out of the conning tower sending signal to Germans. Submarine dived and the enemy patrol boats picked off the defector on sea.
20/Jul/42 badly damaged German merchant Aldebaran(7891 GRT) torpedo. Carried troops but only 3 KIA and 3 WIA.
9/Mar/45 often wrongly credited with the sinking of German merchant Borbeck (6002 GRT) torpedo
ShCh-304 (lost Nov 1942 mine from German field “Nashorn”)


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Shchuka series Vbis
ShCh-305 (lost 5 Nov 1942 rammed by Finnish submarine Vetehinen)
ShCh-308 (lost Oct 1942 mine from German fields “Seeigel”: wreck found and explored in early 2019. Discovery of wreck rule out past claim of sinking by Finnish submarine Iku-Turso on 27/Oct/42: the claim was also already considered weak because ShCh-307 was the real undamaged target while ShCh-308 was already sailing back to base on 20 October.)


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Shchuka series VbisII
ShCh-306 (lost Nov 1942 mine from German field “Nashorn”(note: wreck found in 2015))
6/Nov/42 sunk German merchant Elbing-9 (467 GRT) torpedo
ShCh-307 Received the Order of the Red Banner
After decommissioning, the conning tower was preserved as memorial.
10/Aug/41 sunk German submarine U-144 with torpedo. One of the two German U-boats torpedoed by Soviet submarine.
Took part at the Tallinn Evacuation, saving 4 (or 8 ) persons from sea.
26/Oct/42 sunk Finnish merchant Betty H. (2478 GRT) torpedo. Cargo of pyrite.
27/Oct/42 suffered attacks with torpedoes and gunfire from Finnish submarine Iku-Turso without damages (Finnish wrongly believe to have sunk a target).
16/Jan/45 often wrongly credited with the sinking of German merchant Henrietta Schulze (1923 GRT) torpedo
ShCh-309 Received the Guards Badge
12/Sept/42 sunk Finnish merchant Bonden (695 GRT) torpedo
10/Nov/44 sunk German merchant Carl Cords (903 GRT) torpedo
7/Dec/44 sunk German merchant Nordenham (4592 GRT) torpedo
23/Feb/45 sunk German merchant Göttingen(6267 GRT) torpedo.Ship was carrying 1300 soldiers: 100 killed.
ShCh-310 Received the Order of the Red Banner
30/Sept/42 sunk German merchant Franz Rudolf (1419 GRT) torpedo
8/Oct/44 sunk German transport RO-24 Zonnewijk (4499 GRT) torpedo. Ship was carrying soldiers: 260 were killed.
Often wrongly credited with the sinking of dredger “Bagger-3”, shortly before the other successful attack.
10/Apr/45 often wrongly credited with the sinking of German merchant Ilmenau (1201 GRT) torpedo
ShCh-311 (lost 12 Oct 1942 mine from German field “Nashorn”(note: wreck found in 2012) ) Received the Order of the Red Banner, after the Winter War’s campaign.
28/Dec/39 often wrongly credited with damaging Finnish merchant Sigrid (1224 GRT) gunfire, but ship suffered no real damage. --- during Winter War
29/Dec/39 sunk Finnish merchant Wilpas (775 GRT) gunfire. Cargo of grain--- during Winter War
5/Jan/40 sunk Swedish merchant Fenris (484 GRT) gunfire. Cargo of fuel --- during Winter War
Also damaged the Swedish lightship Sydostbrotten (372tons) with gunfire during the same attack (the boat saved crew of Fenris).
15/Nov/41 damaged Danish merchant Emmanuel (1284 GRT) gunfire. Some sources wrongly describe the target of the attack as the wreck of Soviet merchant Estirand (4444 GRT), already total loss after German air attack.


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Shchuka series X
ShCh-317 (lost Jul 1942 mine from German field “Seeigel” (note: wreck found in 2017, past claim by Finnish minelayer Ruotsinsalmi denied)
All victories scored in the same mission: high efficiency but submarine sunk before opportunity to receive award.
16/Jun/42 sunk Finnish merchant Argo (2513 GRT) torpedo. Cargo of potash salt.
18/Jun/42 damaged Danish merchant Orion (2405 GRT) torpedo
22/Jun/42 sunk Swedish merchant Ada Gorthon (2399 GRT) torpedo. Cargo of 4000 tons of iron ore.
8/Jul/42 sunk German merchant Otto Cords (906 GRT) torpedo
10/Jul/42 Swedish schooner Hannah (96 GRT) with a cargo of sand was lost it was claimed a collision with the submarine (accidental or voluntary).
Recent discovery of wreck does not support this possible victory.
ShCh-318 4/Feb/45 sunk German tanker Hiddensee (643 GRT) torpedo
10/Feb/45 collided against an enemy merchant. Submarine got some damages, unclear the identity of the merchant and her damages.
ShCh-319 (lost Sep 1941 mine from German field “Wartbug”(note: wreck found in 2012))
28/Sept/41 unsuccessfully attacked with torpedoes the German light cruiser Leipzig
ShCh-320 (lost 2 Oct 1942 mine from German field “Seeigel” (note: wreck found on 2017)) Received the Order of the Red Banner (even if scored only one real victory).
5/Jul/42 sunk German merchant Anna Katrin Fritzen(677 GRT) torpedo
ShCh-322 (lost Oct 1941 mine from German field “Corbett”(note: wreck found in 2012))
10/Dec/39 sunk German merchant Reinbeck (2804 GRT) torpedo --- during Winter War
12/Dec/39 damaged German merchant Helga Böge (2181 GRT) gunfire ---during Winter War
16/Dec/39 often wrongly credited for damaging German merchant Gilhausen (4339 GRT) with gunfire --- during Winter War.
ShCh-323 (lost 1 May 1943 by bottom mine in Kronstadt channel) received the Order of the Red Banner
5/Dec/39 damaged German merchant Olivia (1308 GRT) with gunfire --- during Winter War
10/Dec/39 sunk Estonian merchant Kassari(379 GRT) gunfire --- during Winter War
13/Oct/41 attempted an attack against German light cruiser Köln but failed the attack maneuver.
16/Oct/41 sunk German merchant Baltenland (3784 GRT) torpedo. Cargo of lumber
ShCh-324 (lost Nov 1941 mine from German field “Apolda”(note: wreck found in 2015)) Received the Order of the Red Banner after the Winter War’s campaign
13/Jan/40 Finnish auxiliary patrol ship Aura-II sunk after explosion while launching depth charges against submarine.
Old Soviet sources wrongly claimed submarine surfaced and opened fire. In any case, can be considered an indirect victory --- during Winter War.


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Shchuka series Xbis
ShCh-405 (lost 13 or 14 Jun 1942 mine from German field “Brummbär“(note: wreck found in 2018))
ShCh-406 (lost 29 May 1943 by mine from German field “Seeigel” (note: wreck found in 2017, past claim by Finnish minelayer Riilahti denied) Received the Order of the Red Banner
8/Jul/42 badly damaged German trawler Fides (581 GRT) torpedo. Carried a cargo of wood.
26/Oct/42 often wrongly credited for sinking the German trawler Mercator (119 GRT) torpedo
29/Oct/42 sunk Swedish merchant Bengt Sture(872 GRT) torpedo. Cargo of coal.7 POW.
1/Nov/42 sunk Finnish merchant Agnes (2983 GRT) torpedo. Cargo of coke coal.
ShCh-407 6/Oct/44 sunk German school ship Nordstern(1127 GRT) torpedo. Carried troops. 531 killed.
4/Dec/44 sunk German merchant Seeburg (12181 GRT) torpedo
ShCh-408 (lost 22 May 1943 German MFP type armed barges, including F-188 and F-191, with gunfire (note: wreck found 2016 rule out aircraft or depth charges damages by Finnish minelayer Ruotsinsalmi three days later.)
22/May/43 damaged German armed barge F-188 (155 GRT) gunfire during submarine’s last stand battle.
ShCh-411 and ShCh-412 completed only in 1944 and 1945, inactive.


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Srednyaya series IX
S-1 (lost 23 Jun 1941 scuttled in harbor to avoid capture but Germans managed to recover her ) Received the Order of the Red Banner after the Winter War
10/Dec/39 sunk German merchant Bolheim (3324 GRT) gunfire. Cargo of pulp for Finland. --- during Winter War
Only Soviet submarine that saw service among enemy ranks. After recovery, Germans used S-1 without name change to tow U-boats in harbors, then expended as target during a trial with launch of depth charges on 7 August 1943.
S-2 (lost 3 Jan 1940 on mines laid by Finnish minelayer Louhi. Only Soviet submarine loss of Winter War ) --- during Winter War
S-3 (lost 24 Jun 1941 sunk by German motor torpedo boats S-60 and S-35, after a gunfire battle. Submarine was attempting to flee on surface carrying workers despite orders to scuttle in harbor. Only 9 survived POW of ~100 crewmembers and passengers. S-35 suffered 4 WIA because of Soviet fire).
16/Dec/39 often wrongly credited for damaging German merchant Ginnheim (4794 GRT), 1 killed, 2 wounded with gunfire, but actually ground artillery -- during Winter War


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Srednyaya series IXbis
S-4 (lost 7 Jan 1945 rammed and sunk by German torpedo boat T-3 (note: wreck found in 2014, giving confirmation to loss))
12/Oct/44 sunk German trawler Taunus (218 GRT) torpedo
13/Oct/44 sunk German tanker Terra (1533 GRT) torpedo
S-5 (lost 28 Aug 1941 during Tallinn Evacuation (note: wreck found in 2012).Nearby ships saved 14 crewmembers.))
S-6 (lost after 6 Aug 1941 mine from German field “Wartbug”(note: wreck found in 2011))
S-7 (lost 21 Oct 1942 sunk by Finnish submarine Vesihiisi). 4 POWs including commander.) The submarine scored 4 victories, in addition to a fifth one unconfirmed.
All victories scored in the same mission: high efficiency but submarine sunk before opportunity to receive award.
Between the end of October and the beginning of November 1941, S-7 made repetitive shelling of German-controlled positions at Narva (uncommon operations for Baltic).
9/Jul/42 sunk Swedish merchant Margareta (1272 GRT) torpedo. Cargo of coal.
11/Jul/42 sunk Swedish merchant Luleå (5611 GRT) torpedo. Cargo of iron ore.
27/Jul/42 missed German merchant Ellen Larsen (1938 GRT), possibly described as damaged due grounding after artillery attack, but according other sources there was no grounding. Currently there is lack of consensus over this incident.
30/Jul/42 sunk German merchant Käthe (1599 GRT) torpedo. General cargo.
5/Aug/42 sunk Finnish merchant Pohjanlahti (682 GRT) gunfire. Cargo of potatoes. 2 POW.
S-8 (lost Oct 1941 mine from German field “Wartbug”(note: wreck found in 1999))
S-9 (lost Aug 1943 mine from German field “Seeigel” (note: wreck found in 2013))
27/Sept/42 badly damaged German tanker Mittelmeer (6370 GRT) torpedo. Cargo of gasoline, 42t lost.
28/Sept/42 badly damaged German merchant Hörnum (1467 GRT) gunfire
S-10 (lost after 28 Jun 1941 mine from German field “Wartbug”(note: wreck found in 2017))
S-11 (lost 2 Aug 1941 mine from German field “Coburg” laid by S-boats 3 crewmembers survived, swimming to surface from submerged wreck.))
S-12 (lost after 1 Aug 1943 from “Nashorn” field (note: wreck inspected in 2018 confirmed fate).
30/Aug/42 attempted to attack the old German battleship Schlesien, but S-12 could not launch her torpedoes for previous damages by depth charges.
21/Oct/42 badly damaged German merchant Sabine Howald (5956 GRT) torpedo
27/Oct/42 forced to run aground German merchant Malgache (6903 GRT) torpedo
The mission in fall 1942 made by S-12 was the single longest-ever done by a single Soviet submarine during the conflict (62 days).
S-13 The submarine had a total of 6 victories, and received the Order of the Red Banner
11/Sept/42 sunk Finnish merchant Hera (1379 GRT) torpedo. Cargo of coal
12/Sept/42 sunk Finnish merchant Jussi H. (2325 GRT) torpedo. General cargo
18/Sept/42 sunk Dutch schooner Anna W. (290 GRT) gunfire
9/Oct/44 badly damaged German trawler Siegfried (563 GRT) gunfire
30/Jan/45 sunk German transport ship Wilhelm Gustloff(25484 GRT) torpedo. Largest ever human loss for a ship’s sinking in history.
Ship carried 10600 persons (including almost 9000 civilians, the rest were soldiers including almost 1000 submariners).
Up 9400 persons died with the sinking of Wilhelm Gustloff.
10/Feb/45 sunk German transport ship General Steuben (14660 GRT) torpedo. Ship carried 4300 persons (including 800 civilians): 3800 died.
S-13 scored the best Soviet result in terms of tonnage of enemy shipping: 44138 GRT (but Soviet Navy rewarded numerical kills).


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Leninist series II
L-1 (decommissioned in August 1941). She was the oldest vessel of the class and in need of extensive repairs: the Baltic Fleet focused on completing modern submarines)
L-2 (lost 14 Nov 1941 mine from field laid by Finnish minelayer Riilahti (note: wreck found in 2006))
L-3 The best ever Soviet submarine with 10 confirmed victories with three other unconfirmed victories. Received the Guards Badge.
After decommissioning, the conning tower was preserved as memorial.
30/Sept/41 attacked in harbor by Finnish motor torpedo boats Nuoli and Sisu of the 4 torpedoes, three exploded nearby causing minor damage. Finnish boats retreated reporting minor splinter damages (currently not credited as individual victories) claiming a “Fugas” class minesweeper sunk (none was lost or damaged).
Between October and November 1941, wrongly credited the losses of Kaija (1876 GRT), Henny (764 GRT), Uno (408 GRT) and Egeran (1143 GRT) by mines all currently discredited by modern authors, likely caused by German own defensive fields.
18/Aug/42 sunk Swedish merchant C.F. Liljevalch (5513 GRT) torpedo. Cargo of iron ore.
25/Aug/42 often wrongly credited for sinking German merchant Franz Bohmke (210 GRT) with mine. Merchant sunk on 25/Sept by storm.
28/Aug/42 sunk German trawler Walter (177 GRT) mine
21/Oct/42 new research indicate the possibility that sunk German merchant Johanna (143 GRT) mine. However this chance is shared with British air-laid mines, and there is lack of confirmation on official Kriegsmarine data.
17/Nov/42 sunk German merchant Hindenburg (7880 GRT) mine. Cargo of 36 vehicles and 1000 Soviet POWs (6 of them killed, others staged a failed insurrection).
30/Nov/42 sunk German merchant Dirschau (762 GRT) mine (wreck never found, but remains located in proper position)
9/Dec/42 sunk German merchant Edith Bosselmann (952 GRT) mine
5/Feb/43 it is possible that German merchant Tristan (1701 GRT) was sunk on old submarine’s mine (field undetected by Germans).
6/Feb/43 it is possible that German merchant Grundzee (866 GRT) was sunk on old submarine’s mine (field undetected by Germans).
30/Mar/43 often wrongly credited the loss of submarine U-416 by mines. Actually, submarine sunk on British air-dropped mines (later recovered).
14/Nov/44 badly damaged German sailing training ship Albert Leo Schlageter (3655 GRT) mine
20/Nov/44 sunk German fleet torpedo boat T-34 with mine. Largest and most powerful warship (Elbing class) sunk by Soviet submarine during the War.
29/Jan/45 sunk German merchant Henry Lütgens (1141 GRT) mine
17/Apr/45 sunk German transport ship Goya (5230 GRT) torpedo.
Ship carried at least 6100 persons (but possibly more unregistered): at least 1500 soldiers, 385 wounded soldiers and 3500 civilians died.
19/April/45 sunk German minesweeping motor-launch with torpedo.(Boat was one of the launches assigned to vessel MRS-11: she was on the path of the torpedo that was aiming at the larger ship and was destroyed).
Other victories claimed post-war with mines on 1945 (Pollux, M-3138, Jersbek) are currently discredited.


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Leninist series XIIImod
L-21 Second best submarine in Baltic, with 9 victories. Never received an award because mine victories known only after the war.
Unfinished at the beginning of the war, could begin operations only for the 1944/1945 campaigns.
23/Nov/44 damaged German merchant Eichberg(1923 GRT) mine
24/Nov/44 sunk Danish merchant Elie(1873 GRT) mine
and damaged German patrol ship Vs-302 on mine the same day
and sunk Swedish merchant Hansa (563 GRT) torpedo the same day. 83 people died.
22/Dec/44 often wrongly credited German merchant Eberhard (749 GRT) sunk on submarines’ mines. By the time of loss, Germans officially eliminated the field, British air-laid mine more likely cause).
14/Mar/45 sunk German torpedo boat T-3 mine
and sunk German torpedo boat T-5 mine the same day
16/Mar/45 sunk German submarine U-367 with mine
23/Mar/45 sunk German patrol ship V-2022/E Colzmann with torpedo
25/Mar/45 sunk German auxiliary gunboat LAT-7 Gretel with torpedo
Her victories in 1945 represent a rarity among Soviet submarines victories, being all warships.
Other two victories for 1945 (tug Erni sunk by torpedo and destroyer Z-43 damaged by mine) currently fully discredited.



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Katyusha series XIV
K-51 Unfinished at the beginning of the war, could begin operations only for the 1944/1945 campaigns.
28/Nov/44 sunk German trawler Solling(260 GRT) gunfire
1/Dec/44 sunk German trawler Saar (235 GRT) gunfire
28/Jan/45 sunk Danish merchant Viborg(2028 GRT) torpedo. Cargo of coal.
K-52 Received the Order of the Red Banner . (unworthy award, because of 7 victories claimed on 13 attacks, none was real).
Unfinished at the beginning of the war, could begin operations only for the 1944/1945 campaigns.
K-53 Unfinished at the beginning of the war, could begin operations only for the 1944/1945 campaigns.
17/Mar/45 sunk German merchant Margarethe Cords (1912 GRT) torpedo
After the end of the war, on 13/May/45 shelled and destroyed an abandoned German armed boat.
K-54 never completed. Cannibalized during war to provide spare parts to other submarines of the class.
K-55 at first cannibalized during war to provide spare parts to other submarines of the class. Later completed only in March 1945, but too late to begin combat operations.
K-56 Unfinished at the beginning of the war, could begin operations only for the 1944/1945 campaigns.
From January 1942, despite incomplete, it provided an important help to the population during the Leningrad Siege, using her engines to pump drinking water directed to bakeries and allow the production of bread during the siege.
26/Dec/44 sunk German merchant Baltenland (3038 GRT) torpedo
29/Dec/44 sunk Swedish merchant Venersborg(1046 GRT) torpedo. Cargo of wood pulp.
11/Apr/45 sunk Swedish schooner Ramona (57 GRT) gunfire


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Dekabrist series I
D-2 After decommissioning, the ship preserved and turned into a Museum-ship on land.
14/Oct/42 sunk German merchant Jacobus Fritzen(4090 GRT) torpedo. Cargo of coal
19/Oct/42 damaged German ferry ship Deutschland (2972 GRT) torpedo. Carried Norwegian Legion soldiers of the Waffen-SS, 24 dead and 29 wounded.
Active until the very end of the war, despite age but without further victories.



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Kalev series (Former Estonian submarines incorporated to the Fleet).
Kalev (lost Nov 1941 mine possibly from German field “Juminda”. Wreck not yet found)
Victories claimed with mines on 1941 (merchants Mosel-I and Frauenburg) currently discredited and actually sunk on own German mines.
During the Tallinn Evacuation, was strafed by a German plane suffering 1 KIA, 1 WIA, but rescued 8 persons from sea.
Lembit Received the Order of the Red Banner. While Lembit has only 3 confirmed victories, there are also other two unconfirmed victories.
After decommissioning, the ship preserved and turned into a Museum-ship (moved on land only in 2011).
A number of victories claimed post-war with mines on 1941 and 1942 (Starke, Orkan, Kathe O) are currently discredited.
14/Sept/42 damaged German merchant Finnland (5281 GRT) torpedo. Carried troops: 10 killed, 86 wounded.
Depth charges launched after the attack caused heavy damages to submarine (including a fire, with 6 WIA), but Lembit managed to return to base.
13/Oct/44 sunk Danish merchant Hilma Lau (2414 GRT) torpedo. Cargo of coal.
15/Oct/44 it is possible that torpedoed and sunk a German fishing boat
24/Nov/44 sunk German trawler Spreeufer (216 GRT) mine
Other victories claimed post-war with mines on 1944 and 1945 (M-421, M-3619, V-305, Pionier-5) currently discredited.
25/Apr/45 possibly sunk German patrol boat Vs-343 on mines (ship missing without trace).
1/May/45 new research claims the possibility that sunk German landing barge F-193 sunk on mine. This is very unlikely, because distance, time (field laid in November 1944) and presence of other mines including British air-laid and German defensive fields.



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Ronis series (Former Latvian submarines incorporated to the Fleet).
Ronis (lost 23 Jun 1941scuttled in harbor to avoid capture)
Spidola (lost 23 Jun 1941 scuttled in harbor to avoid capture)


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Pravda series IV (unsuccessful “cruiser-submarines” design, never used in such role and used as transports).
P-1 (lost 10 Sept 1941 mine from German field “Juminda” while on transport mission to supply Hanko (note: wreck found in 2008).)
P-2 Made a single transport mission, carrying a load of fuel from Kronstadt to Leningrad under enemy fire.
On reserve status since 1942, decommissioned in 1944 but reactivated post-war as training boat.
P-3 Had an accidental collision with B-2 on 16 July 1941, further air damages prevented use as transport.
On reserve status since 1942, decommissioned in 1944 but reactivated post-war as training boat.



older submarines
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B-2 old veteran of the Russian Civil War. Used for training and later to recharge batteries.
At the time named “Pantera” torpedoed and sunk the British destroyer HMS Vittoria on 31/Aug/19 during the Russian Civil War.
It was the only submarine victory scored by Soviet submarines in Baltic during the conflict, it was also the only destroyer ever sunk by a Russian or Soviet submarine with torpedo attack!
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L-55 old ex- British submarine of WWI sunk in action by Soviets during Russian Civil War. Used to recharge batteries.


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Malyutka series VImod
M-71 (lost 23 Jun 1941 scuttled in harbor to avoid capture)
M-72 M-73 M-74 M-75 M-76 decommissioned and in reserve already in 1942
M-77 transferred in Ladoga Lake for reconnaissance.
M-78 (lost 23 Jun 1941 sunk by German submarine U-144)
M-79 transferred in Ladoga Lake for reconnaissance.
M-80 (lost 24 Jun 1941 scuttled in harbor to avoid capture)
M-81 (lost 1 Jul 1941 mine from German field “Gotha” laid by S-boats. 2 crewmembers on tower survived, one escaped swimming from submerged wreck.)
M-83 (lost 27 Jun 1941 scuttled in harbor to avoid capture)


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Malyutka series XII
M-90
M-92 experimental submarine
M-94 (lost 21 Jul 1941 sunk by German submarine U-140. 3 crewmembers on tower survived, other 8 escaped swimming from submerged wreck.))
M-95 (lost 15 Jun 1942 mine from Finnish field “Rukayarvi-B” (note: wreck found in 2015))
13/Jun/42 launched two torpedoes against the wreck of Soviet merchant Shauliay (939 GRT), already a total loss by German air raid.
M-96 (lost between 7 and 9 Sep 1944 mine from German field “Seeigel”)
14/Feb/42 suffered an enemy ground artillery’s hit in Leningrad. Repairs needed for four months.
14/Aug/42 often wrongly credited for sinking German merchant Helena (1850 GRT). Actually, ship sank on British air-dropped mines.
11/Nov/42 landed five “scouts” for a special mission (with German uniform, to infiltrate and retrieve an Enigma machine). The mission failed (machine was not found) but scouts recovered documents and 2 POWs, however sailing back to submarine two scouts and a POW died when their rubber-boat capsized because of weather.
M-97 (lost 2 Sept 1942 mine from German field “Nashorn” (note: wreck found in 1990, mine damage deny the claim of Finnish VMV patrol boats))
M-98 (lost 15 Nov 1941 mine, possibly on the fields “D-35” or “D-46”))
M-99 (lost 27 Jun 1941 sunk by German submarine U-149)
M-102
M-103 (lost 25 Aug 1941 mine from field “D-2” laid by German minelayer Brummer)
Last edited by 1redItalian on 09 Sep 2019, 11:13, edited 73 times in total.
Reason: minor corrections
Soviet cogitations: 287
Defected to the U.S.S.R.: 20 Feb 2010, 11:57
Resident Admiral
Post 23 Jan 2014, 14:59
Added class profiles from site (c) Navypedia.org
Soviet cogitations: 287
Defected to the U.S.S.R.: 20 Feb 2010, 11:57
Resident Admiral
Post 29 May 2014, 17:49
Addition!:
Some of modern authors had detracted in the last years the sinking of U-367: usually linked with mines laid by Soviet submarine L-21.
A strange radio communication (with clear mistakes) was attributed to U-367 and indicated the possibility that she was lost out of the L-21's field (this message was however puzzling, because even the same number of reported submarine was wrong: U-3010).
In Fall 2013 a group of Polish divers found and explored a previously identified U-boat wreck that lie perfectly in the area of L-21 mines.
Even if the identification could not have been made at 100%, the divers believed for a number of elements that it was U-367 (a number of details coincide, including battle damage, class of submarine and lack of other U-boats losses in that location).
http://forum-nuras.com/printview.php?t= ... 67fe2221a2
http://vimeo.com/78585591

L-21 now share the top of the best of Soviet submarines with L-3 and L-4: all achieved 9 victories among sinking and damaging.
(however L-3 remains the most successful, considering the targets and the amount of sinking ones).
Soviet cogitations: 287
Defected to the U.S.S.R.: 20 Feb 2010, 11:57
Resident Admiral
Post 29 Nov 2015, 21:19
Addition!
Miroslav Morozov in 2015 revised the case of loss of German merchant "Dirschau" occurred on 30 November 1942 and assigned it to submarine L-3 (with mine).
L-3 is now officially the best Soviet submarine of WW2 with a tally of 10 victories, having surpassed L-4 and L-21 (both with 9 victories).
Statistics has been revised.
Soviet cogitations: 287
Defected to the U.S.S.R.: 20 Feb 2010, 11:57
Resident Admiral
Post 05 Nov 2017, 10:44
Update!
Discovery of wreck of submarines ShCh-320 and ShCh-406: both vessels lost due German mines. Previously ShCh-406 believed sunk by German small minesweepers, also Finnish sources made a wrong claim of ShCh-320 for their submarine Iku-Turso.
Soviet cogitations: 287
Defected to the U.S.S.R.: 20 Feb 2010, 11:57
Resident Admiral
Post 19 Jun 2018, 12:36
Major Updates:
* Inserted main credits of original sources (neutral modern Russian source and German source as cross-work).
* During years 2010-2018 a number of Soviet submarines wrecks have been discovered in Baltic Sea! Fate of some ships has been revised as consequences (such revision occurred only on updated Russian sources).
Significantly, currently no Soviet submarine can be claimed as sunk by enemy depth charges attack in the Baltic Sea area!
(only ShCh-408, S-3 and S-4 sunk by enemy surface ship direct action: all due gunfire or ramming).
All Finnish claims with depth charges done by minelayers or patrol boats are currently discredited.
* Added few damaging victories scored during Winter War
* Added unconfirmed-shared victories to L-3, L-21 and Lembit
* One submarine is no more considered a battle loss: M-74 (already on reserve status when hit by bombers in harbor. Submarine was lifted and alongside the rest of subclass placed on reserve).
Soviet cogitations: 287
Defected to the U.S.S.R.: 20 Feb 2010, 11:57
Resident Admiral
Post 12 Aug 2019, 23:02
VERY LARGE UPDATE/REVISION:
1) Added main intro
2) Added intro for subs in Baltic
3) Reworked table of victories/losses
4) Inserted notable failed attacks against interesting targets (light cruisers Leipzig and Köln).
5) Inserted significant episodes (like crewmembers rescued or surviving the escape from wreck in low waters)
6) Inserted all common mistakes of victory claims done by '90s literature.
7) Inserted all revised fate of submarines based upon 2000-2018 evaluation of wrecks (disproving lots of past claims).
8 ) Inserted preservation of ships as musem-ships or memorials
10) After above-mentioned new researches. Loss of ShCh-308 by Finnish submarine Iku-Turso discredited (real cause was mine barrage), wreck found in 2019!
11) One victory removed for ShCh-311: Sigrid was not damaged. As consequences, it is no more stressed the former tally of 5 victories.
12) Identified the target attacked by ShCh-311 on 5/Jan/40: lightship Sydostbrotten only slightly damaged, still affected by Soviet fire.
13) Possible victory for ShCh-317, schooner Hannah, indicated as otherwise after discovery of submarine wreck. As consequence, removed the victory tally, but stressed the successful patrol.
14) Sinking of Finnish ship Aura-II during attack on ShCh-324 is now an indirect victory (explosion of own depth-charges, old Soviet claims of fight are wrong).
15) Added details of fate of S-1: de facto only Soviet submarine recovered and put in some use by Germans before being expended as target.
16) Fixed again fate of S-2: confirmed Finnish mine success.
17) Removed the only proper victory (damage) of S-3: new data indicate Ginnheim was shelled by ground artillery. Also removed the detail of casualties on German S-boats because it was included in the details of loss. Only effect was on crew.
18) Discovery of wreck of S-12 confirm loss by mine.
19) Inserted details over attempted attack from S-12 against old German battleship Schlesien. Contrary to what claimed by some Western/German sources, the Soviets never claimed the Schlesien as sunk: submarine truly attempted to approach the battleship but could not finalize the attack.
20) Re-work on the top Soviet submarine in WW2: L-3
a)Revised tally is 10 confirmed victories + 3 unconfirmed victories
b)Inserted detail of a failed Finnish raid in harbor with motor torpedo boats.
c) Widespread claims of sinking of merchants Kaija (1876 GRT), Henny (764 GRT), Uno (408 GRT) and Egeran (1143 GRT) are all detracted: they cannot be losses of Soviet submarine L-3 because location (Soviet mines were outside the navigation route).
d) Also claim of Franz Bohmke added, but ship was lost for other reason
e) NEW possible victory indicated by recent German researches (small ship Johanna (143 GRT)): possibly shared with British mines, and there is lack of proper German documentations over this loss (likely due her Dutch origins).
f) other common claims of L-3 all explained and deined by modern sources.
21) Revised successes of L-21: removed the two unconfirmed claims previously assigned: Eberhard (749 GRT) after explains added, mysterious case of Vs-343 moved to Lembit
22) Inserted information of K-class: including when submarines effectively begun to operate
23) Fixed some information of D-2: death of Norwegian collaborationist minister is a wrong information, but casualties inflicted were Norwegian SS-volunteers.
24) Clarified and fixed late claims of submarine Lembit: there is possibility only for Vs-343
25) Inserted data and clarified effective use of "Pravda" class as transport-submarines (rather than training submarines), even if with limited activity (only 1 effective successful mission of 2). Used as training submarines only after the war!
26) Inserted data of activity of M-96, including an interesting special mission.


EDIT AUGUST 2019:
1) Re-integrated data for the loss of submarine S-3 (action include a surface engagement, heavy losses of crew/workers transported onboard, some German casualties too)
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