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Why did the US beat the USSR to the moon?

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Soviet cogitations: 2
Defected to the U.S.S.R.: 30 Jan 2006, 03:06
New Comrade (Say hi & be nice to me!)
Post 30 Jan 2006, 03:20
This is a Russian article from Novosti-Kosmonavtiki on how the Soviets listened in & watched the American Apollo's to the moon.


http://www.novosti-kosmonavtiki.ru/cont ... 1/03.shtml


Translated:

We "saw",
As Americans
Sat down on the Moon...
E.Molotov specially
For " News of astronautics "

Whether clause(article) of the participant of events of 30-years prescription of E.P.Molotova offered(suggested) to readers throws light on unknown pages of " lunar race " and finally closes a ridiculous question " there Were Americans on the Moon? "

Has passed more than 30 years since as the most expensive race between Soviet Union and the United States of America for superiority(championship) in landing the person to the Moon has been developed(unwrapped). Who has won this race of prestige - it is known. Many events have taken place for this time...

Process of competition was repeatedly described both American, and the Russian party(side). It is represented to us interesting to tell about one of it(him) of earlier not shined(covered) episodes.

Programs of preparation of landing of the person on the Moon in the USSR (flight УР-500 - Л-1, landing(planting) Н-1 - Л-3) and in the USA ("Apollo") were conducted in parallel, and superiority(championship) had powerful political value. The Soviet management(manual) paid the big attention to a state of affairs with realization of the lunar program both in Soviet Union, and in America. For the objective control over performance of the American program the secretary of the Central Committee of the CPSU D.F.Ustinov supervising the defensive industry of the country, at the end of 1967 has entrusted main designer РНИИ КП (at that time SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH INSTITUTE - 885) M.S.Rjazanskomu to develop a special control radio engineering complex with which help it would be possible to accept signals from the American spacecrafts of the program "Apollo", making flight of the Moon and landing(planting) to its(her) surface.

M.S.Rjazansky at that time was responsible for creation of onboard and ground radio engineering control facilities by spacecrafts of the Soviet lunar program. Under his(its) management(manual) for management Soviet пилотируемыми and automatic spacecrafts for research of the Moon the Ground complex of management including two control centres by flight, six ground and three ship items(points) of the management, equipped with corresponding stations of tracking and located on territory of Soviet Union and in the certain points of World ocean has been created. However these means could not be used for reception of the information from the ships "Apollo" as they worked in the other frequency range with the signals having other structure. Therefore it was necessary to create the special control complex, capable to provide reception of the data from "Apollos". It was supposed to accept from the American spacecrafts not only telephone (voice) and telemetering, but also the television information.

Has been solved to include in a control complex aerial TNA-400 with diameter of a mirror 32 m which was placed in Crimea, near to Simferopol (fig. 1). She(it) was used as the reception aerial of a radio engineering complex "Saturn - МС" providing management by the Soviet automatic space vehicles for research of the Moon later: "Moon rovers", devices for delivery of a lunar ground to the Earth, and also lunar satellites.

For work in structure of a control complex aerial TNA-400 has been equipped малошумящим with the reception device working in a range of 13 sm (range S in which transmitters of lunar modules of the program "Apollo" worked). Besides in structure of a complex have come: the demodulator of a group signal transmitted on bearing(carrying) frequency and the signals transmitted on поднесущих frequencies, the equipment of allocation of the voice, telemetering and television information, and also the equipment of display and management of a complex (fig. 2).

The control complex created in short terms РНИИ КП in cooperation with the several industrial enterprises, was ready to reception of signals from spacecrafts of the program "Apollo" in November, 1968.

To trace the ships at their flight on orbits around of the Moon and at landing(planting) to its(her) surface, it was necessary to have the ballistic data of these orbits for calculation целеуказаний to the aerial. However such data were not published by Americans. Therefore the data on orbits of flight were calculated by ballistics on the basis of time of start and arrival to the Moon of the ships "Apollo" which informed by the American radio. On these data paid off целеуказания for prompting the aerial which were specified on signals accepted by a control complex from the lunar ships.

Such approach to calculation целеуказаний has allowed to accept reliably enough signals from "Apollos". The problem(task) of search of signals was facilitated by that the diagram of an orientation of the aerial covered practically half of disk of the Moon.

Tracking was conducted behind spacecrafts of expeditions(dispatches) "Apollo - 8", "Apollo - 10", "Apollo - 11" and "Apollo - 12" from December, 1968 till November, 1969.
From all these ships telephone conversations of astronauts with the Earth and the telemetering information on a condition of onboard systems were accepted with high quality. The accepted television signal had poor quality because of an insufficient level of an energy potential of a radioline on the basis of the 32-meter aerial.

It is necessary to note, that the American network of tracking and management provided practically round-the-clock communication(connection) with spacecrafts "Apollo" while the Soviet control complex could accept signals only in that part of the visibility range which on time coincided with a visibility range of the Madrid station of tracking.

Lunar expedition(dispatch) under F.Bormana's management(manual) on a spacecraft "Apollo - 8" in December, 1968 has carried out the first пилотируемый flight to the Moon, has made 10 coils around of it(her) and, having come back to the Earth with the second space speed, has made soft landing(planting) at ocean.

This flight has formed the basis for a stop of works on the first stage of Soviet program Л-1 though all technics(technical equipment) and crews to пилотируемому to flight of the Moon by then were ready.

Flight of crew "Apollo - 11" with an output(exit) on a surface of the Moon on July, 20, 1969. N.Armstronga and E.Oldrina has finally stopped competition on landing the person to the Moon.

On fig. 3 photos of spectra of the signals accepted by control station from spacecrafts "Apollo", made with the screen of the videocontrol device are submitted.

On fig. 4 the image of rising of the Earth above the lunar horizon, accepted on a telechannel from one of the ships "Apollo" is shown.

As is known, after that Soviet Union has directed the efforts to research of the Moon by automatic space vehicles therefore impressing results have been received.

In summary we shall note, that data on creation and functioning of the Soviet special control radio engineering complex were not published earlier.

<TO RETURN
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Defected to the U.S.S.R.: 14 Nov 2005, 20:49
Pioneer
Post 30 Jan 2006, 19:19
Actually, Space race is a way that Amerikish used for depleting USSR fund.

In fact, many of their 'space conquering' plans were cancel not long after the collapse of USSR
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Defected to the U.S.S.R.: 05 Jun 2005, 10:51
Komsomol
Post 31 Jan 2006, 06:36
After the Apollo missions (regardless of weather they were real or not) including Skylab, the US was not present in space, and though they were working on the space shuttle, the USSR was developing space stations which led to MIR and later the International space station.

The Comrade wrote:
In fact, many of their 'space conquering' plans were cancel not long after the collapse of USSR


Except the space shuttle, all of America's space ambitions were canceled in the early seventies, which included going to mars, creating a permanent presence on the mood and possibly creating "space colonies". However Regan and Bush Sr. did make claims that the US was going to Mars and/or colonizing the moon, which might have been an attempt to goat the soviets to spending more money on their space program.
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Defected to the U.S.S.R.: 30 Jan 2006, 03:06
New Comrade (Say hi & be nice to me!)
Post 02 Feb 2006, 02:47
People saying that the USSR or USA faked this mission or that mission is nothing new. I remember a book by Lloyd Mallan "Russia's Space Hoax" stating that Alexei Leonov's spacewalk was faked.

http://www.vho.org/tr/2004/3/Kausch250-253.html
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Defected to the U.S.S.R.: 21 Jun 2004, 21:22
Embalmed
Post 04 Feb 2006, 13:44
Sorry for not making a very good post but, Why did they start the space race to begin with? It seems odd, because the concept of outerspace weapons (The only reason that I can see worth the amount of money spent, and still spent today), is pretty new, and as far as I know wasn't being thought of then.
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Defected to the U.S.S.R.: 21 Dec 2004, 23:53
Ideology: Marxism-Leninism
Philosophized
Post 04 Feb 2006, 20:05
The space race started because the US and USSR was afraid the other side would have a space station to spy on them and put nukes into space. Thus making it easy for one side to drop nukes easily on the other.
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Defected to the U.S.S.R.: 16 Nov 2005, 17:55
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Post 17 Feb 2006, 21:11
Or maybe they thought that wars of the future could be fought like the battle in Moonraker.
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Defected to the U.S.S.R.: 15 May 2005, 17:11
Komsomol
Post 18 Feb 2006, 01:34
Americans did land on the moon, the Soviets confirmed it themselves, the actually 'saw' the Americans touching down on the moons surface. If they faked it, the Russians would have used everything in their power to prove that so that the Americans would be ashamed in front of the world, but they didn't so this says enough..
Altough many theories about the pictures and other weird circumstances are very interesting, it is said that the earth has some sort of special magnetic field which has such strong radiation the astronauts couldn't have survived to the moon with the technology of those days. Although this makes it all really mysterious the Americans most probably did land on the moon...
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Defected to the U.S.S.R.: 21 Dec 2005, 17:31
Pioneer
Post 07 Mar 2006, 01:41
Quote:
Actually, Space race is a way that Amerikish used for depleting USSR fund.


The USSR never had strong financial or popular support for the Soviet space program. Hence the USSR never made it to the Moon. The "depleting of funds" is highly unlikely. It was more of a (excuse my choice of words) pissing contest.

But the Soviets did "run out".
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Defected to the U.S.S.R.: 17 Jan 2005, 07:15
Unperson
Post 07 Mar 2006, 16:08
Imo there are way too many funny things with the supposed moonlanding.
Someone stated a few good points why its weird above.

btw, Flags cant wave @ vacuum ;D
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Defected to the U.S.S.R.: 29 Nov 2004, 20:06
Party Bureaucrat
Post 07 Mar 2006, 21:19
To the "FLAGS DONT WAVE CAUSE THERES NO WIND ON THE MOON LOL THE MOON LANDING IS ALL FAKE" kiddies, how do you think a person inserts a flag into the ground? Straight down? No, they squiggle and twist the flagpost around, thus making it go into the surface easier. The momentum from this movement is causing the waves.
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Defected to the U.S.S.R.: 05 Jun 2005, 10:51
Komsomol
Post 08 Mar 2006, 06:46
Also, if you have happened to see much more footage of the various moon landings (which often show on the "NASA channel" for those who get it) you will notice the flag only moves around when some one touches it or when the lunar Lander takes off.
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Defected to the U.S.S.R.: 16 Feb 2005, 02:51
Party Bureaucrat
Post 08 Mar 2006, 07:00
If the Americans have never been to the moon, how do you explain that most of those astronauts who supposedly never left earth, died of cancer and leukemia later on? Don't tell me that they received large doses of radiation from watching TV.
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Defected to the U.S.S.R.: 17 Jan 2005, 07:15
Unperson
Post 08 Mar 2006, 13:08
You dont need to land on the moon to get cancer.
What would make most sense is, that the equipment they had back then was not safe enough to protect them from all the radiation, and so they were exposed.
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Defected to the U.S.S.R.: 16 Feb 2005, 02:51
Party Bureaucrat
Post 08 Mar 2006, 13:35
One of the arguments the conspiracy theorists put forward is that the equipment at the time was not sufficient to protect the astronaut from the radiation in the ionoshpere, but, the level of space radiation below ionosphere is is not sufficient to cause any long term damage.
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Defected to the U.S.S.R.: 24 Dec 2005, 23:28
Komsomol
Post 26 May 2006, 17:58
Quote:
Why was the victor of the space race America?

It wasn't. The fact that the moon was reached by americans first does little to redeem america's weak failing before. The USSR had put the fist man-made object, the first animal, the first man, the first woman into space. Russian probes were the first to reach the Moon and Venus. And the only thing americans managed was to get to the moon. And that's because Russia let them, there was no need to get to the moon first.
And also, putting so many firsts into space is by many orders more important than just getting to the moon; because there are many moons in the solar system, but there is only one space.
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Defected to the U.S.S.R.: 13 Oct 2006, 14:42
New Comrade (Say hi & be nice to me!)
Post 17 Oct 2006, 04:41
The chief director of the Soviet space program had died of cancer,I forgetted his name,(likely Kololiov) however,his continuator was not so capable as his U.S competer,a top scientist captured from the Nazi Germany. So they failed.
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Defected to the U.S.S.R.: 19 Mar 2005, 20:08
Embalmed
Post 06 Feb 2007, 01:15
I'm thinking, the US spent billions to put 3 people on the moon for 2 hours, exploring 100 sq. m. while the USSR but an unmanned rover on the moon for 11 months, exploring 80000 sq m. Which was better?

Quote:
During its 322 Earth days of operations, Lunokhod traveled 10540 metres and returned more than 20000 TV images and 206 high-resolution panoramas. In addition, Lunokhod 1 performed twenty-five soil analyses with its RIFMA x-ray fluorescence spectrometer and used its penetrometer at 500 different locations.


Quote:
Lunokhod 2 operated for about 4 months, covered 37 km (23 miles) of terrain, including hilly upland areas and rilles, and sent back 86 panoramic images and over 80,000 TV pictures. Many mechanical tests of the surface, laser ranging measurements, and other experiments were completed during this time.
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Defected to the U.S.S.R.: 16 Nov 2005, 17:55
Party Bureaucrat
Post 07 Feb 2007, 14:44
Quote:
It wasn't. The fact that the moon was reached by americans first does little to redeem america's weak failing before.


For bratty, arrogant competitors like the US, if it doesn't win, it changes the rules of the game so that it does. Under objective rules of winning the space race, the USSR obviously won for all the points mentioned, although the USSR stopped seeing it as a game after its first successful launches. However, seeing the lag, the US changed the rules of the "space race" to be the race of the first man on the moon, so the US won.

Many Americans today are convinced that the space race was like the story "Tortoise and the Hare, the moon landing was the only objective of both space programs, and that the US won by being slow and steady.
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Defected to the U.S.S.R.: 26 Jul 2006, 10:21
Party Member
Post 05 Mar 2007, 13:23
Quote:
Why was the victor of the space race America? The USSR was going ahead strong with Spuitnik and the first man into space. Plus the first woman into space. Why didn't they keep up the race?


I wouldn't call the US a "victor." Both the US & the USSR focused and specialised on different areas in Space research. The Mir Space station was truly a spectacle, and lots was borrowed from this into the construction of the ISS (International Space Station). The Soyuz module is still the mainstay transport & docking platform in the ISS. The US space research prog could never produce a Mir.

But they landed on the Moon. They're different specialisations, and the Mir isin't any less of a spectacle than landing on the moon is.

Many Western sources attribute the race to land a guy in the moon the SOLE barometer to the success of your space prog, which is ridiculously bogus.
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