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Enver Hoxha

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Defected to the U.S.S.R.: 18 Jul 2005, 00:40
Komsomol
Post 27 Jul 2005, 05:17
I have lately been researching some stuff about an Albanian communist- Enver Hoxha, it seems that he was one of the 'better' communist leaders. Any I got some brief details from, yeah... you guessed it Wikipedia (ahhh wikipedia the source for world domination...)

Quote:
Enver Hoxha

Enver Hoxha (1908-1985)Enver Hoxha, (October 16, 1908–April 11, 1985) was the dictator of Albania from the end of World War II until his death in 1985, as the First Secretary of the Communist Albanian Party of Labour. He was also Prime Minister of Albania from 1944 to 1954 and the Minister of Foreign Affairs from 1946 to 1953. Under Hoxha, whose rule was characterized by isolation from the rest of Europe and firm adherence to Stalinism, Albania emerged from semi-feudalism to become an industrialized state.

Biography
Hoxha was born in Gjirokastër, a city in southern Albania. He was the son of a Muslim cloth merchant who travelled widely across Europe during his childhood, and the major influence on Enver during these years was his uncle, Hysen Hoxha. Hysen Hoxha was a militant socialist who campaigned vigourously for the independence of Albania - which occurred when Enver was four years old - and opposed the repressive governments that prevailed after independence. Enver took to these ideas very strongly, especially after King Zog came to power in 1928.

In 1930, he went to study at the University of Montpellier in France on a state scholarship, but he soon dropped out. From 1934 to 1936 he was a secretary at the Albanian consulate in Brussels. He also studied law at the university there. He returned to Albania in 1936 and became a teacher in Korçë.

Hoxha was dismissed from his teaching post following the 1939 Italian invasion of World War II for refusing to join the Albanian Fascist Party. He opened a tobacco shop in Tiranë where soon a small communist group started gathering. He was helped by Yugoslav communists to found and become leader of the Albanian Communist Party (called Party of Labour afterwards) in November 1941, as well as the resistance movement (National Liberation Army), which took power in November 1944.

Hoxha declared himself an orthodox Marxist-Leninist and strongly admired Joseph Stalin. He adopted the model of the Soviet Union and severed relations with his former Yugoslav communist allies following their ideological breach with Moscow in 1948. He had defence minister Koçi Xoxe executed a year later for alleged pro-Yugoslav activities.


Bunkers in AlbaniaHoxha confiscated farmland from wealthy landowners and consolidated it into collective farms (Cooperatives) that eventually enabled Albania to become almost completely self-sufficient in food crops. He also developed the industry and brought electricity to most rural areas, and epidemics of disease and illiteracy were stamped out. Worried about an invasion from the Soviet bloc, Italy or the United States, from 1950 Hoxha authorised the construction of thousands of one-man concrete bunkers across the country, to act as look outs and gun emplacements, possibly numbering in excess of 600,000.

Hoxha remained a firm Stalinist despite new Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev's repudiation of Stalin's excesses in 1956 at the Twentieth Party Congress of the Soviet Communist Party, but this meant Albania's isolation from the rest of communist Eastern Europe. In 1960, Hoxha aligned Albania with the People's Republic of China in the Sino-Soviet split, severing relations with Moscow the following year. In 1968, Albania withdrew from the Warsaw Pact in response to the Soviet-led invasion of Czechoslovakia.

In 1967, following two decades of progressively harsher persecution of religion under his rule, Hoxha triumphantly declared his nation to be the first atheist state in history. Partially inspired by China's Cultural Revolution, he proceeded to confiscate mosques, churches, monasteries, and shrines. Many were immediately razed, others turned into machine shops, warehouses, stables, and movie theaters. Parents were forbidden to give their children religious names. Anyone caught with the Qur'an, Bibles, icons, or religious objects faced long prison sentences. In the south, where the ethnic Greek population was concentrated, villages named after saints were given secular names.

According to a landmark Amnesty International report published in 1984 Albania's human rights record was dismal under Hoxha. The regime denied its citizens freedom of expression, religion, movement, and association although the constitution of 1976 ostensibly guaranteed each of these rights. In fact, certain clauses in the constitution effectively circumscribed the exercise of political liberties that the regime interpreted as contrary to the established order. In addition, the regime tried to deny the population access to information other than that disseminated by the government-controlled media. The Sigurimi routinely violated the privacy of persons, homes, and communications and made arbitrary arrests. The courts ensured that verdicts were rendered from the party's political perspective rather than affording due process to the accused, who were occasionally sentenced without even the formality of a trial.

Mao's death in 1976 and the defeat of the Gang of Four in China's subsequent inner-party struggle in 1977 and 1978 led to the Sino-Albanian split and Albania's retreat into political isolation, with Hoxha claiming the anti-revisionist mantle to criticize both Moscow and Beijing.

In 1981, Hoxha ordered the execution of several party and government officials in a purge. Prime Minister Mehmet Shehu was reported to have committed suicide following a further dispute within the Albanian leadership in December 1981, but is often believed to have been killed.

Later, Hoxha withdrew into semiretirement and turned most state functions over to Ramiz Alia. Hoxha's death on April 11, 1985 led to some relaxation in internal and foreign policies under his successor Ramiz Alia, as communist party rule weakened throughout Eastern Europe, culminating in Albania's abandonment of one-party rule in 1990 and the reformed Socialist Party's defeat in the 1992 elections.


Anyway he seemed like a pretty heroic guy and a great contributor to the communist cause.
"What they have to discover, what all the efforts of capitalism's enemies are frantically aimed at hiding, is the fact that capitalism is not merely the 'practical,' but the only moral system in history."
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Defected to the U.S.S.R.: 07 Oct 2004, 22:04
Ideology: Marxism-Leninism
Resident Soviet
Post 28 Jul 2005, 03:27
One of the better communist leaders?

Quote:
Anyone caught with the Qur'an, Bibles, icons, or religious objects faced long prison sentences



I'm sorry, I'm just pissed off because I don't support his switch to supporting the Chinese (I'm not much of a Maoist).
"The thing about capitalism is that it sounds awful on paper and is horrendous in practice. Communism sounds wonderful on paper and when it was put into practice it was done pretty well for what they had to work with." -MiG
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Defected to the U.S.S.R.: 18 Jul 2005, 00:40
Komsomol
Post 28 Jul 2005, 03:33
By one of the better communist leaders I mean, look at Pol Pot, he claimed he was a communist... did he make Cambodia a great prosperous country flourishing with equality? erm no he didn't. Enver Hoxha was much of a Stalinist and yes he did end up supporting the Chinese (I am a bit of a Maoist fan, but lesser than I am a Stalin or a Ho Chi Minh fan, they were the great but Erich Honecker was my favorite) Anyway he was a good man and made Albania an excellent industrial nation.
"What they have to discover, what all the efforts of capitalism's enemies are frantically aimed at hiding, is the fact that capitalism is not merely the 'practical,' but the only moral system in history."
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Soviet cogitations: 105
Defected to the U.S.S.R.: 08 Dec 2005, 10:40
Pioneer
Post 11 Dec 2005, 21:00
He's got a cool name and he looks cool too!
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Defected to the U.S.S.R.: 30 Jun 2003, 23:38
Old Bolshevik
Post 11 Dec 2005, 21:08
Soviet78, Enver's switch to China was of short duration. I dont think he ever claimed to be maoist. Enver made some great contributions to the struggle against revisionism, but his absolute rejections of the USSR was ridiculous, and only harmed the communist movement.
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Defected to the U.S.S.R.: 30 Jun 2005, 18:01
Komsomol
Post 12 Dec 2005, 00:57
Hoxha was one of the greatest communists of the 20th century. Albania was an excellent socialist society.

Soviet78 the Albanian cultural revolution (which is the context in which your quote refers to) was not started by Hoxha, it was a student and working class led movement. The party actually did not play a vanguard role at the start, it eventually did.

Albania had constantly been a non-religious society in the majority, with only small sections of Mohammedians and Christians in certain areas.

This sentence "Anyone caught with the Qur'an, Bibles, icons, or religious objects faced long prison sentences" is completely absurd and hearsay, spread by anti-communists and imperialists.
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Defected to the U.S.S.R.: 22 Mar 2004, 17:55
Komsomol
Post 08 Jan 2006, 23:03
Do you live in Albania?

To say that Albania is an excellent industrial country like someone said is a joke - in Bulgarian the term 'Albanian heater' is a synonym for something that works slowly or not at all. Albania had no industry to speak of, except tarmac and asphalt producing factories. And the infrastructure? It is a joke - there is one proper hospital: in Tirhana, and in the North of the country there wasn't even a single maternity ward.
-"One of the lasses I know is a 32D...yes, I'm a horny, unsuccessful virgin." - LPC reveals all on MSN
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Defected to the U.S.S.R.: 08 Dec 2005, 10:40
Pioneer
Post 03 Mar 2006, 14:46
People here will support any tyranny as long as they slap on some sort of communist insignia.
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Defected to the U.S.S.R.: 15 Feb 2006, 19:53
Pioneer
Post 03 Mar 2006, 21:42
Quote:
By one of the better communist leaders I mean, look at Pol Pot, he claimed he was a communist... did he make Cambodia a great prosperous country flourishing with equality? erm no he didn't.


Actually, Gerry, Pol Pot *never* claimed to be communist, and only made quasi-communist overtures when seeking help from the Chinese government.

"We are not communists ... we are revolutionaries" who do not "belong to the commonly accepted grouping of communist Indochina." --Ieng Sary, second-in-command of the Khmer Rouge.

u.
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Defected to the U.S.S.R.: 30 Nov 2006, 09:01
Komsomol
Post 15 Dec 2006, 23:38
Quote:
I'm sorry, I'm just pissed off because I don't support his switch to supporting the Chinese (I'm not much of a Maoist).

Do you know the specifics of why he 'switched' to the Chinese?
"Read some of the works of Marx and Engels... couple this with a reading of the Bible and note the parallelism of Communism and the program of Satan." Thomas O. Kay, National Association of Evengelicals
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Defected to the U.S.S.R.: 07 Oct 2004, 22:04
Ideology: Marxism-Leninism
Resident Soviet
Post 16 Dec 2006, 03:17
Quote:
Do you know the specifics of why he 'switched' to the Chinese?


Well from what I've heard a big part of it had to do with the Soviet warming of relations with Tito. Other issues included the Soviet policy of 'peaceful coexistence' toward the West, and Khrushchev's denunciation of Stalin.
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Defected to the U.S.S.R.: 30 Nov 2006, 09:01
Komsomol
Post 17 Dec 2006, 02:27
Wasn't it you that liked Andropov for taking a more aggresive stance towards the west?
You defend Stalin don't you?
"Read some of the works of Marx and Engels... couple this with a reading of the Bible and note the parallelism of Communism and the program of Satan." Thomas O. Kay, National Association of Evengelicals
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Defected to the U.S.S.R.: 07 Oct 2004, 22:04
Ideology: Marxism-Leninism
Resident Soviet
Post 17 Dec 2006, 13:05
Quote:
Wasn't it you that liked Andropov for taking a more aggresive stance towards the west?


Andropov took an aggressive stance against the West out of necessity, not choice. The US at the time was being run by Reagan, and calling the USSR 'the evil empire', threatening to deploy Pershing II missiles in Europe, acting very aggressively to build up its military forces and refusing to come to Soviet attempted nuclear arms reduction talks. Andropov wasn't about to act like the pussy Gorbachev who basically bent over for the West on nearly every issue. Like Andropov, I guess, I am for peaceful coexistence (strictly out ot practical necessity), but against defeatism and weakness.

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You defend Stalin don't you?


There is a complexity with me Ezekiel39 because I don't look at states, events and personalities as simply as an ideologist might. I do defend Stalin, but I also have trouble with notions that the USSR after 1956 was no longer socialist, that it was entirely the USSR's fault that relations between them and China deteriorated, etc. Khrushchev was foolhardy, and an opportunistic asshole for denouncing Stalin, but that doesn't mean, in my mind, that the USSR after Stalin's death was 'social imperialist' and 'state capitalist', as Maoist ideologists in particular like to assert.
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Defected to the U.S.S.R.: 30 Nov 2006, 09:01
Komsomol
Post 22 Dec 2006, 08:19
So are you more of a Russian nationalist historian than an on-the-street communist?
"Read some of the works of Marx and Engels... couple this with a reading of the Bible and note the parallelism of Communism and the program of Satan." Thomas O. Kay, National Association of Evengelicals
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Defected to the U.S.S.R.: 07 Oct 2004, 22:04
Ideology: Marxism-Leninism
Resident Soviet
Post 23 Dec 2006, 17:02
I am not a Russian nationalist. Better terminology would be Soviet Patriot. I uphold the ideals of socialism every chance I get; my conclusions just happen to turn out differently from yours.

What does 'on-the-street communist' mean? Someone that goes to protests, shouts slogans and throws things at police?
Pat
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Defected to the U.S.S.R.: 21 Jun 2004, 21:22
Embalmed
Post 25 Dec 2006, 07:36
He worked with what was given to him. The ban on religion was of course to enforce "Marxist" principles; I still have a problem with it though. I guess he was an okay person. Other than that, I agree with all of you (even if you are disagreeing).

Mainly, I'm with Iskra. That whole area was doomed for revisionism, and most of this stuff was done out of desperation.

Soviet78 is a cool guy. He has a pretty sound knowledge on the USSR that I don't think I could ever achieve, even if I just listened to him.:P

Don't try to define his whole ideology from a few posts, you'll only get confused. He gives the facts and explanation; what went wrong, etc.

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in Bulgarian the term 'Albanian heater' is a synonym for something that works slowly or not at all.

And that's in Bulgaria


I wanted to show my appreciation for that quote, I don't have much else to say.
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I hope this doesn't get me banned again-Fontis
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Defected to the U.S.S.R.: 30 Nov 2006, 09:01
Komsomol
Post 28 Dec 2006, 19:09
Quote:
What does 'on-the-street communist' mean? Someone that goes to protests, shouts slogans and throws things at police?

sometimes.
I mean an active communist, working as a member of or close to a party to establish socialist revolution. Not just defending the USSR regardless of its politics.
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I don't look at states, events and personalities as simply as an ideologist might

you should if you're serious about communist revolution. In fact, you have to.
ever read any of Lenin's works on revisionism?
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Khrushchev was foolhardy, and an opportunistic asshole for denouncing Stalin,
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was it just words? was there no action taken to 'back up' what he said?
"Read some of the works of Marx and Engels... couple this with a reading of the Bible and note the parallelism of Communism and the program of Satan." Thomas O. Kay, National Association of Evengelicals
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Defected to the U.S.S.R.: 01 Mar 2006, 08:59
Party Bureaucrat
Post 28 Dec 2006, 19:54
The idea that the USSR magically became capitalist overnight is Cinderella-like idealist nonsense. Likewise with the PRC. But somehow that is what happened, according to some nutty Maoist groups in the USA.
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Defected to the U.S.S.R.: 30 Nov 2006, 09:01
Komsomol
Post 28 Dec 2006, 20:33
Quote:
The idea that the USSR magically became capitalist overnight is Cinderella-like idealist nonsense. Likewise with the PRC.

Why is that so incoceivable?
When Deng Xiaopeng took over through a coup, the RCP denounced it as the ressurection of capitalism in China. People like you stood by and said that socialism can't go to capitalism, even up until today, you'll see a valley of sweatshops owned by foriegn imperialists and still can call it 'socialism' while keeping a straight face? You seriously consider privatizing sector after sector of the economy to be socialism? That's kind of the opposite of socialism.
Are you one of those that just has to have something to defend, and can't admit that there is no 'homeland' of socialism anymore? Are you completely blind to the conditions of the masses of China under the 'socialist' free-market?
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according to some nutty Maoist groups in the USA.
as well as hundreds of other communist groups throughout the world, particularly most of those that are making any headway.

Hell, the Chinese government doesn't even consider itself socialist. They denounced (officially) Marxism-Leninism in the 80's, and in practice in the late 70's.
"Read some of the works of Marx and Engels... couple this with a reading of the Bible and note the parallelism of Communism and the program of Satan." Thomas O. Kay, National Association of Evengelicals
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Defected to the U.S.S.R.: 01 Mar 2006, 08:59
Party Bureaucrat
Post 28 Dec 2006, 20:37
Quote:
Quote:
The idea that the USSR magically became capitalist overnight is Cinderella-like idealist nonsense. Likewise with the PRC.


Why is that so incoceivable?


Because, the probability of said thing happening is about as likely as a pumpkin turning into a horse-carriage. Ever hear of dialectics?

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hundreds of other communist groups throughout the world, particularly most of those that are making any headway.


What groups around the world declared that the PRC had become capitalist the day Deng took over?

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Hell, the Chinese government doesn't even consider itself socialist. They denounced (officially) Marxism-Leninism


First of all, Socialism is a major mode of the organization of the means of production. Marxism-Leninism is a political and organizational trend. So they are not the same thing. Thus, you are using a fallacious way of reasoning here to arrive at your conclusion that the PRC has renounced socialism.

Second, where did they denounce Marxism-Leninism? Now, I definitely don't know everything, but you'll please humour my skepticism and point me to a document on or off line where they explicitly denounce 'Marxism-Leninism'. That would be a major ideological break, and I would have thought that, if it had officially happened, much hay would have been made of it by various critics of the regime. Hence the fact that I've not heard of it (albeit I don't know everything) puzzles me.
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"To know a thing you must study it." --Dagoth Ur
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