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Back In The U.S.S.R. - Banned?

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Soviet cogitations: 50
Defected to the U.S.S.R.: 27 Feb 2014, 05:02
Ideology: Trotskyism
Pioneer
Post 15 Jun 2014, 18:50
I always thought this song was banned in the Soviet Union, but it appears in this 1990 television broadcast, with the border guard snapping along.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cxLXZQQJElw
While the state exists, there can be no freedom. When there is freedom there will be no state. - V. I. Lenin
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Soviet cogitations: 4381
Defected to the U.S.S.R.: 07 Oct 2004, 22:04
Ideology: Marxism-Leninism
Resident Soviet
Post 15 Jun 2014, 19:39
Well, to start with, the Soviet media environment of 1990 was very different from that of say 1985, so there's that. Otherwise, the reason everyone seemed to know about Western music, including the Beatles, was because of pirated tapes played at home, at parties, at dance halls, etc. People in the Soviet Union came to know and love the Beatles not long after they became a hit in the West, even if they did so only informally, unofficially.
"The thing about capitalism is that it sounds awful on paper and is horrendous in practice. Communism sounds wonderful on paper and when it was put into practice it was done pretty well for what they had to work with." -MiG
Soviet cogitations: 673
Defected to the U.S.S.R.: 01 Mar 2011, 14:10
Ideology: Marxism-Leninism
Komsomol
Post 23 Jun 2014, 18:41
After the 50s Soviet music pretty much mimicked the West in many ways. Dean Reed, an American singer who lived in the GDR and performed frequently in the USSR, was as popular as Elvis was in the West and covered some Beatles records (not "Back in the USSR" though.)

Proof:
* https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rCUoG1piabc
* https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YQW398MCpj4 (oh god)
* https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=O1LSGa0dlWo (OH GODDDDDDDDD)
* https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nlQDjKIp6R8

He also covered "Rock and Roll I Gave You the Best Years of My Life" by Kevin Johnson, which references the Beatles. You can see a 1980 Soviet video of him doing so here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LlFjBUTgt1g
Loz
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Soviet cogitations: 11879
Defected to the U.S.S.R.: 06 Dec 2009, 23:17
Philosophized
Post 23 Jun 2014, 19:45
What an outrage.
Good thing the Albanians banned all that Western garbage and jungle music ( including San Remo schlagers ) and allowed only Albanian folk songs.
Soviet cogitations: 673
Defected to the U.S.S.R.: 01 Mar 2011, 14:10
Ideology: Marxism-Leninism
Komsomol
Post 23 Jun 2014, 20:20
Albanian music was pretty good:
* https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=63vTsyHohLQ
* https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LnnJ2NVwl5w

Hoxha in 1969, on the Soviet revisionists' "reasons" for invading Czechoslovakia:
Quote:
Of what fight against bourgeois ideology can the Soviet revisionists speak while revisionism is nothing else but a manifestation of the bourgeois ideology in theory and practice, while egoism and individualism, the running after money and other material benefits are thriving in the Soviet Union, while careerseeking and bureaucratism, technocratism, economism and intellectualism are developing, while villas, motor-cars and beautiful women have become the supreme ideal of men, while literature and art attack socialism, everything revolutionary, and advocate pacifism and bourgeois humanism, the empty and dissolute living of people thinking only of themselves, while hundreds of thousands of western tourists that visit the Soviet Union every year, spread the bourgeois ideology and way of life there, while western films cover the screens of the Soviet cinema halls, while the American orchestras and jazz bands and those of the other capitalist countries have become the favorite orchestras of the youth, and while parades of western fashions are in vogue in the Soviet Union? If until yesterday the various manifestations of bourgeois ideology could be called remnants of the past, today bourgeois ideology has become a component part of the capitalist superstructure which rests on the state capitalist foundation which has now been established in the Soviet Union.
Loz
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Soviet cogitations: 11879
Defected to the U.S.S.R.: 06 Dec 2009, 23:17
Philosophized
Post 23 Jun 2014, 20:49
Yeah, good thing Albanian youth didn't want to have anything to do with that, except that everyone who could wanted to watch Yugoslav or Italian TV over RTSH.
Banning non-Albanian popular music was outright barbaric and a reflection of how deeply xenophobic the PPSH was ( even though Hoxha himself was probably the most intellectual and well-read of all those block leaders ). How could jazz be called reactionary and traditional folk not? Nonsense.
Also that music sounds Chinese for some reason.
Soviet cogitations: 673
Defected to the U.S.S.R.: 01 Mar 2011, 14:10
Ideology: Marxism-Leninism
Komsomol
Post 24 Jun 2014, 05:55
I don't know how you can say the PLA was "xenophobic" and before that say that people could watch Italian and Yugoslav TV.

Calling folk music reactionary is ridiculous. Using that logic Woody Guthrie and Pete Seeger would be classed as reactionaries.

Hoxha noted that it was dangerous for Albania to worship everything foreign, not because foreign music and culture was inherently bad, but because doing so meant removing the class aspect in the sphere of culture. It's also why Hoxha said elsewhere that "we cannot and should not follow 'the European road'; on the contrary, it is Europe which should follow our road, because, from the political standpoint, it is far behind us, it is very far from that for which Marx, Engels, Lenin and Stalin fought, and for which our Party fights today." The Soviet revisionists, as part and parcel of their restoration of capitalism, called for an end to class struggle, declaring that the Soviet state represented the interests of "the whole people" and that the CPSU likewise was of "the whole people."
Loz
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Soviet cogitations: 11879
Defected to the U.S.S.R.: 06 Dec 2009, 23:17
Philosophized
Post 24 Jun 2014, 09:30
Quote:
I don't know how you can say the PLA was "xenophobic" and before that say that people could watch Italian and Yugoslav TV.

What does TV signal crossing the border have to do with officially sanctioned Albanian xenophobia?

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Calling folk music reactionary is ridiculous. Using that logic Woody Guthrie and Pete Seeger would be classed as reactionaries.

It's not, at least not necessarily. Just pointing out that you cannot celebrate ( and not only that, but actually forbid pretty much everything else ) feudal folk music as the height of the creative culture of a people while condemning modern jazz as reactionary. It just doesn't make sense.

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Hoxha noted that it was dangerous for Albania to worship everything foreign, not because foreign music and culture was inherently bad, but because doing so meant removing the class aspect in the sphere of culture.

Albania literally didn't have a proletariat or a true bourgeoisie until the 40s. So what about the class aspect in the sphere of its culture anyway? Was Albanian pop culture somehow less reactionary than say Italian?

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It's also why Hoxha said elsewhere that "we cannot and should not follow 'the European road'; on the contrary, it is Europe which should follow our road, because, from the political standpoint, it is far behind us, it is very far from that for which Marx, Engels, Lenin and Stalin fought, and for which our Party fights today." The Soviet revisionists, as part and parcel of their restoration of capitalism, called for an end to class struggle, declaring that the Soviet state represented the interests of "the whole people" and that the CPSU likewise was of "the whole people."

The only aspect in which Europe lagged far behind Albania was the number of bunkers per head.
Soviet cogitations: 673
Defected to the U.S.S.R.: 01 Mar 2011, 14:10
Ideology: Marxism-Leninism
Komsomol
Post 24 Jun 2014, 18:36
You haven't actually given examples of "officially sanctioned Albanian xenophobia." You certainly cannot watch any foreign TV in the DPRK unless you're part of the ruling elite, while in China in the 1960s-70s, as Hoxha noted, well and truly everything foreign was denounced, and Hoxha noted Mao's xenophobia in this regard. There have been plenty of Western accounts of visits to Albania in the 60s-80s, none of them reported xenophobic attitudes.

Again you come off looking rather ridiculous. Were Guthrie and Seeger advocates of feudalism? The 1970s Great Soviet Encyclopedia defines folk arts as "the artistic activity of the working people; the poetry, music, theater, dance, architecture, and fine and applied art created by the people and existing among the popular masses. The collective artistic activity of the common people reflects their work, social organization and everyday life, knowledge of life and nature, and religious practices and beliefs. Evolving in the course of social labor, folk arts embody the views, ideals, and aspirations of the common people, their poetic imagination, their extremely rich world of thoughts, feelings, and experiences, their protest against exploitation and oppression, and their dreams of justice and happiness. Having absorbed the age-old experience of the popular masses, folk arts are distinguished by a profound artistic grasp of reality, verisimilitude of imagery, and powerful generalizations."

That certainly doesn't sound feudal, nor reactionary. As Hoxha noted, "The new instruments have spread the modern songs, to which I am not opposed, but willy-nilly, there is a danger that they will gradually take the place of the folk songs, and this would be a great mistake. They have led to the spreading of European dances, to which I am not opposed if they are kept in proportion, but we must not eliminate the folk dances, because this, too, would be a great mistake. We teach the people who graduate from the schools, whom we send to the houses and centres of culture, to organize modern choirs and a number of standard things, but they are not taught to inspire the workers to sing folk songs, either when they are alone, or when they are at work, to put their heads together and sing in pairs, as is the custom with our people. Indeed they forget that the people love to sing, that they do sing, because their life, their traditions and customs demand it."

According to the History of the Party of Labour of Albania (1982, p. 20) there were about 15,000 workers in 1938, who obviously lived and worked in backward conditions, but who nonetheless were already developing a history of labor struggles under the leadership of the communist groups and their efforts to set up trade unions.

In the immediate postwar years there was a right-wing line being spread by Sejfulla Malëshova, who had been expelled from his professorship in the USSR in the early 30s for Bukharinism and who called for an "all-Albanian cultural front" uniting progressive and reactionary trends in literature and art. It is basic Marxism that "the ideas of the ruling class are in every epoch the ruling ideas," as Engels noted, so even if Albania was completely feudal there would still be a distinction between progressive and reactionary currents in the culture (as there certainly had been in the 19th Century national struggle.) As for Albanian pop culture being less reactionary than its Italian counterpart: yes, obviously. Many reactionary figures of Albanian culture collaborated with the Italian occupiers: Gjergj Fishta, Ernest Koliqi, etc. And in the subsequent decades many Italian Communists criticized the impact of American and general consumer culture on Italian culture.

As for the unoriginal bunker remark, according to the Chinese in the event of external invasion the Albanians should have just relied on Yugoslav and Romanian "comrades" to save them. With such "allies" the Albanians had little choice but to prepare their own defenses.
Loz
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Soviet cogitations: 11879
Defected to the U.S.S.R.: 06 Dec 2009, 23:17
Philosophized
Post 26 Jun 2014, 05:08
Quote:
You haven't actually given examples of "officially sanctioned Albanian xenophobia." You certainly cannot watch any foreign TV in the DPRK unless you're part of the ruling elite, while in China in the 1960s-70s, as Hoxha noted, well and truly everything foreign was denounced, and Hoxha noted Mao's xenophobia in this regard. There have been plenty of Western accounts of visits to Albania in the 60s-80s, none of them reported xenophobic attitudes.

Except that foreign popular culture was banned and almost no one was allowed to visit Albania. It was one the most isolated and shut-in countries in the world back then which by the 80s had relatively decent relationships only with, ironically, Western European countries . Minorities like the Greeks had barely any rights too. So what is that if not evidence for official xenophobia?

Quote:
Again you come off looking rather ridiculous. Were Guthrie and Seeger advocates of feudalism? The 1970s Great Soviet Encyclopedia defines folk arts as "the artistic activity of the working people; the poetry, music, theater, dance, architecture, and fine and applied art created by the people and existing among the popular masses. The collective artistic activity of the common people reflects their work, social organization and everyday life, knowledge of life and nature, and religious practices and beliefs. Evolving in the course of social labor, folk arts embody the views, ideals, and aspirations of the common people, their poetic imagination, their extremely rich world of thoughts, feelings, and experiences, their protest against exploitation and oppression, and their dreams of justice and happiness. Having absorbed the age-old experience of the popular masses, folk arts are distinguished by a profound artistic grasp of reality, verisimilitude of imagery, and powerful generalizations."

If Albanian folk tradition and culture is even remotely similar to that of other Balkan countries, and it is, then it's generally speaking reactionary and feudal.
I love folk music but there's hardly anything progressive about it. In any case officially sanctioning it as the only sort of music that's somehow not anti-communist or whatever is absolutely reactionary, stifling and stupid. Outright Zhdanovism.

Quote:
That certainly doesn't sound feudal, nor reactionary. As Hoxha noted, "The new instruments have spread the modern songs, to which I am not opposed, but willy-nilly, there is a danger that they will gradually take the place of the folk songs, and this would be a great mistake. They have led to the spreading of European dances, to which I am not opposed if they are kept in proportion, but we must not eliminate the folk dances, because this, too, would be a great mistake. We teach the people who graduate from the schools, whom we send to the houses and centres of culture, to organize modern choirs and a number of standard things, but they are not taught to inspire the workers to sing folk songs, either when they are alone, or when they are at work, to put their heads together and sing in pairs, as is the custom with our people. Indeed they forget that the people love to sing, that they do sing, because their life, their traditions and customs demand it."

And there we see in all his glory how the supreme commandant Hoxha, among other things, decides what music the Albanians are allowed to listen, because people moving away from listening to folk non-stop, in the 20th century, is somehow "wrong".
This is something most people would both ridiculous and barbaric.

Quote:
As for the unoriginal bunker remark, according to the Chinese in the event of external invasion the Albanians should have just relied on Yugoslav and Romanian "comrades" to save them. With such "allies" the Albanians had little choice but to prepare their own defenses.

Tito's army helped the Albanians a lot in the anti-fascist struggle. Also Yugoslavia was trying to put up an alliance with Albania after the war, so there's no reason to think the Yugo-army wouldn't fight together with the Albanian one in case either country was attacked, which is the point and purpose of alliances in the first place.
Soviet cogitations: 673
Defected to the U.S.S.R.: 01 Mar 2011, 14:10
Ideology: Marxism-Leninism
Komsomol
Post 26 Jun 2014, 07:23
Loz wrote:
Except that foreign popular culture was banned and almost no one was allowed to visit Albania. It was one the most isolated and shut-in countries in the world back then which by the 80s had relatively decent relationships only with, ironically, Western European countries .
Foreign culture wasn't "banned." Various cultural delegations visited Albania from other countries, and foreign literature was readily available. A bourgeois source (Prifti, Socialist Albania since 1944, 1978, pp. 133-134) notes that works from Mayakovsky, Gorky, Pushkin, Hans Christian Andersen, Balzac, Molière, Voltaire, Goethe, Schiller, Mark Twain, Walt Whitman, Pablo Neruda, Jack London, etc. were available in translated versions. You yourself said that anyone who owned a TV could watch Italian and Yugoslav broadcasts pretty much without incident.

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Minorities like the Greeks had barely any rights too. So what is that if not evidence for official xenophobia?
There was no repression of Greeks in Albania, unless you want to count the struggle against the Greek Orthodox Church (alongside the Roman Catholic Church and Islamic clergy) as somehow "oppressing" Greeks, which makes little sense. The Greek minority had its own schools and places of culture, and quite a few members of the "ruling Stalinist elite" or whatever were Greek. They had an appropriate level of rights.

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If Albanian folk tradition and culture is even remotely similar to that of other Balkan countries, and it is, then it's generally speaking reactionary and feudal.
You'll have to give an example. Don't confuse the national form (obviously Albanian folk music is going to sound relatively "primitive" to Western ears compared to banjo-strumming American folk) with the content.

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In any case officially sanctioning it as the only sort of music that's somehow not anti-communist or whatever is absolutely reactionary, stifling and stupid. Outright Zhdanovism.
Who said only folk music was permitted? I myself linked to two songs which clearly weren't folk, and quoted Hoxha saying that other forms of music were fine but shouldn't lead to folk music being neglected.

This certainly isn't a folk song either: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gRuThHEwWLE

Hoxha mentioned that song as follows: "Songs like the one entitled 'For You, My Homeland', composed by Pjetër Gaci and interpreted by the People's Artist Mentor Xhemali, will remain immortal in the treasury of our new art. This song is a hymn to our socialist Homeland, to our unconquerable people and Party. It was born at the difficult moments of the revisionist blockade, and is permeated by a lofty revolutionary and optimistic spirit. If not every day, at least every two or three days, in moments of joy or difficulty, I like to listen to it on my tape recorder and it always moves me and inspires me to work." (Selected Works Vol. IV, pp. 912-913.)

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Tito's army helped the Albanians a lot in the anti-fascist struggle. Also Yugoslavia was trying to put up an alliance with Albania after the war,
It's the other way around, the Albanian army was sent into Kosovo and Bosnia to help liberate both from fascist occupation. Actual Yugoslav troop presence in Albania during the war was pretty much non-existent. As for "trying to put up an alliance with Albania after the war," you actually mean turning Albania into a neo-colony and preparing to incorporate it into Yugoslavia, killing anyone who got in the way (e.g. forcing Nako Spiru, in charge of economics, to commit suicide.)

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so there's no reason to think the Yugo-army wouldn't fight together with the Albanian one in case either country was attacked, which is the point and purpose of alliances in the first place.
Hoxha did say that the Albanian people would contribute to any new national liberation struggle waged by the Yugoslav people against external aggressors (see: http://www.revolutionarydemocracy.org/rdv7n2/albyugo.htm), but the Chinese suggestion was something else.

The Albanians noted that in 1968 Zhou Enlai told them that "Albania, as a small country, had no need of heavy armament and that it was not at all in a position to defend itself alone from foreign aggression, particularly from Soviet socialimperialism and US imperialism, no matter how much military aid it would receive from China. Therefore, according to Chou En-lai, the only road for Albania to cope with foreign aggression was that of applying the tactics of partisan warfare in the country and concluding a military alliance with Yugoslavia and with Rumania...

The leadership of our Party considered Chou En-lai's proposal about the military alliance he was seeking to impose on us an attempt of a reactionary character on the part of the Chinese leadership to drive socialist Albania into the trap of warmongering plots through military alliances, with the final aim of turning the Balkan area into a powder keg, as the Soviet socialimperialists and the US imperialists are seeking to do." (Letter of the CC of the Party of Labour and the Government of Albania to the CC of the Communist Party and the Government of China, 1978, pp. 37-39.)

The Albanians also noted that the Chinese had influence in the armed forces, and sought to bring about a coup so that, among other reasons, the establishment of a Yugoslav-Romanian-Albanian alliance could be carried out.
Loz
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Soviet cogitations: 11879
Defected to the U.S.S.R.: 06 Dec 2009, 23:17
Philosophized
Post 30 Jun 2014, 06:07
Quote:
Foreign culture wasn't "banned." Various cultural delegations visited Albania from other countries, and foreign literature was readily available. A bourgeois source (Prifti, Socialist Albania since 1944, 1978, pp. 133-134) notes that works from Mayakovsky, Gorky, Pushkin, Hans Christian Andersen, Balzac, Molière, Voltaire, Goethe, Schiller, Mark Twain, Walt Whitman, Pablo Neruda, Jack London, etc. were available in translated versions.

Notice i said pop culture. And really wonder how modern Yugoslav, Soviet or European/American literature was treated.

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You yourself said that anyone who owned a TV could watch Italian and Yugoslav broadcasts pretty much without incident.

Only because the Segurimi couldn't actually be present in everyone's living room.

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You'll have to give an example. Don't confuse the national form (obviously Albanian folk music is going to sound relatively "primitive" to Western ears compared to banjo-strumming American folk) with the content.

I don't intend to read up/listen to Albanian folk music. All i know that generally Balkan folk music is peasant music from feudal times and that it carries with it all the implications of peasant and feudal culture. Since Albania was actually the most backwards and most rural of all Balkan countries one would assume that this was the case with its folk culture. If Albanian folk traditions include blood vendetta, medieval codes like the Leke Dukagjin and mores and customs such as besa then surely music too must have reflected all this and as did all culture and superstructure built on a feudal and semi feudal base.

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Who said only folk music was permitted? I myself linked to two songs which clearly weren't folk, and quoted Hoxha saying that other forms of music were fine but shouldn't lead to folk music being neglected.

As far as i know it was way too much promoted to the point that it dominated radio and TV. Hoxha even ranted against Italian schlager festivals being shown on RTSH.
Still doesn't change the fact that the rest of the world's music was probably banned too.

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It's the other way around, the Albanian army was sent into Kosovo and Bosnia to help liberate both from fascist occupation. Actual Yugoslav troop presence in Albania during the war was pretty much non-existent. As for "trying to put up an alliance with Albania after the war," you actually mean turning Albania into a neo-colony and preparing to incorporate it into Yugoslavia, killing anyone who got in the way (e.g. forcing Nako Spiru, in charge of economics, to commit suicide.)

Never heard of Albanian army going to Bosnia. As far as i know the Yugoslavs sent a lot of military and other aid to the Albanian partisans, together with military experts.
As for SFRY trying to turn Albania into a neo-colony, i don't know what to say. Tito's proposal for a Balkan Federation must have been a conspiracy all along, with Yugoslavia turning everyone from Bulgaria to Greece into colonies. In fact Yugoslavia helped Albania greatly, even Hoxha had nothing but praise for Tito before his boss ( it was in fact Stalin that wanted to turn E. Europe into Soviet colonies ) changed his mind in 1948. The first railroad in Albania was built by the Yugoslavs. If you want to have an example of what Albania would have looked like as a "colony" of Yugoslavia you only have to take a look at Kosovo ( post-'66). Compare Priština with its federal-money built, let's say library shaped as the Albanian national hat, to Tirana which has basically 2 landmarks, the university and the palace of culture - all built by the Soviet Union . Kosovo was contrary to being a "colony" the biggest drain on Yugoslav federal budget and the biggest recipient of development funds.

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The Albanians also noted that the Chinese had influence in the armed forces, and sought to bring about a coup so that, among other reasons, the establishment of a Yugoslav-Romanian-Albanian alliance could be carried out.

Never aware that Tito wanted any sort of alliance with Ceausescu's Romania.
Soviet cogitations: 673
Defected to the U.S.S.R.: 01 Mar 2011, 14:10
Ideology: Marxism-Leninism
Komsomol
Post 30 Jun 2014, 21:21
Loz wrote:
Notice i said pop culture. And really wonder how modern Yugoslav, Soviet or European/American literature was treated.
As I'm sure you recognize, the vast majority of pop culture doesn't particularly deserve to be translated. There were translations of modern literature though, e.g. works by Ehrenberg.

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Only because the Segurimi couldn't actually be present in everyone's living room.
No, I've talked to those who recalled their parents freely watching Yugoslav and Italian TV. It wasn't some clandestine effort that could get you thrown in jail for 20 years or whatever.

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I don't intend to read up/listen to Albanian folk music. All i know that generally Balkan folk music is peasant music from feudal times and that it carries with it all the implications of peasant and feudal culture.
Which assumes that everything that originated from the peasantry is somehow inherently reactionary or that folk music is incapable of development (e.g. American folk music in 1750 is obviously not the same as folk music in 1930.)

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If Albanian folk traditions include blood vendetta, medieval codes like the Leke Dukagjin and mores and customs such as besa then surely music too must have reflected all this and as did all culture and superstructure built on a feudal and semi feudal base.
And any songs glorifying such things (with the exception of besa, which the bourgeois-democratic writers and poets of the National Renaissance interpreted differently) were obviously not sung.

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As far as i know it was way too much promoted to the point that it dominated radio and TV. Hoxha even ranted against Italian schlager festivals being shown on RTSH.
Well there's the 1983 Festivali i Këngës (shown on RTSH): https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MhIetnQQktA

I don't see a single example of folk music from skimming it.

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Never heard of Albanian army going to Bosnia. As far as i know the Yugoslavs sent a lot of military and other aid to the Albanian partisans, together with military experts.
The Yugoslavs sent "political advisers" to keep watch on the Communist Party of Albania. They didn't send troops or military aid.

As for Bosnia, "Yugoslav sources began to acknowledge [in the early 70s] that Albanian Partisans did indeed participate in Yugoslavia's war of liberation... affirm[ing] that in late November 1944 the Third and Fifth Albanian Partisan Brigades participated, 'with Yugoslav permission,' in the liberation of the towns of Prizren and Peć in Kosovo and that in late 1944 and early 1945 the Fifth and Sixth Divisions of the Albanian army took part in the final phase of the fighting in Montenegro and Sandzak (Bosnia)." - Prifti, Socialist Albania since 1944, p. 198.

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Tito's proposal for a Balkan Federation must have been a conspiracy all along, with Yugoslavia turning everyone from Bulgaria to Greece into colonies.
Like Mao in-re Asia, Tito had ambitions to become "boss" of the Balkans. He told Dedijer how concerned he was that "the Russians" (his words) would "get" Albania before he could annex it into Yugoslavia. Stalin did not oppose the concept of a Balkan Federation, but he did oppose Tito's schemes.

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In fact Yugoslavia helped Albania greatly, even Hoxha had nothing but praise for Tito.
Đilas in his memoirs calls the Yugoslav treatment of Albania shameful. He also notes that Hoxha opposed in print Yugoslav attempts to present the liberation of Albania as the act of the Yugoslavs. Pretty much any bourgeois source (also Đilas) will note that the Yugoslavs wanted to get rid of Hoxha. From 1956-60 Hoxha "had nothing but praise for Khrushchev" in his public announcements either, what's your point? The Yugoslavs (through their agent Koçi Xoxe) drove Nako Spiru to suicide, first because the economic "agreements" between Albania and Yugoslavia that he had to sign were obviously unequal, and second because he felt he was going to be denounced and executed by Xoxe (who controlled the security service), whereas he probably wouldn't have if he had held out longer.

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The first railroad in Albania was built by the Yugoslavs.
And the first railroads in Africa were built by European colonialists, what's your point? Any Yugoslav investments in Albania were one-sided and were treated as future investments in Yugoslavia itself.

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If you want to have an example of what Albania would have looked like as a "colony" of Yugoslavia you only have to take a look at Kosovo ( post-'66).
I notice you say "post-'66," since in the 40s-50s the Albanians in Kosovo were treated quite badly. But even afterwards Yugoslav sources note that blood feuds and illiteracy continued to exist, something that wasn't the case in Albania. And the Albanians in Kosovo continued to face discrimination, with attempts to achieve a republic within Yugoslavia being smashed by tanks in 1981.

Compare Priština with its federal-money built, let's say library shaped as the Albanian national hat, to Tirana which has basically 2 landmarks, the university and the palace of culture - all built by the Soviet Union .[/quote]For the record the Palace of Culture was built mainly by the Albanians, since the Soviet revisionists cut off all development projects including the Palace.

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Kosovo was contrary to being a "colony" the biggest drain on Yugoslav federal budget and the biggest recipient of development funds.
Many colonies were "drains" on the budgets of the colonizing governments, doesn't change their status.

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Never aware that Tito wanted any sort of alliance with Ceausescu's Romania.
The Chinese wanted an alliance between the three states (Yugoslavia, Romania, Albania.) Ceaușescu and Tito were on friendly terms: both thundered loudly against "dogmatism," both had opportunistic foreign policies, both were fond of taking out large loans from the West, and both had similar security concerns following the Soviet social-imperialist aggression against Czechoslovakia. And both were on increasingly friendly turns with the Chinese revisionists, while the Albanians obviously weren't.
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Soviet cogitations: 237
Defected to the U.S.S.R.: 16 Jul 2014, 21:53
Ideology: Other Leftist
Pioneer
Post 17 Jul 2014, 00:31
If theres something that politics cannot rule, plan or control, its art.

All tries to regulate music (and art in general) will fail. You cannot force someone to like what it doesnt like.

What can we do ?

I remember the struggle of Maiakovsky.

Had he been allowed to pursue his art (parellel to being asked to help rebuilt soviet educational system) he would be an expoent of modern soviet poetry.

Soviet art during the revolutionary years was ahead of other countries of the time.

Artists had liberty to experiment.

Then soon as the socialist realism started, art in soviet union was destroyed.

Basically, artists should not coerced to help in the political struggle, simply because you cannot force creativity to flow.

What can be done is to trust the rationality of Marxist tought and believe that, for every reactionary artist, there will be a progressive one, if the ambient allows.

(IE.: State sponsored artists of any kind, provided that the artist has audience).

Regarding rock and roll, it doesnt need to be reactionary. It can very will be progressive, as some bands i know show.
Soviet cogitations: 673
Defected to the U.S.S.R.: 01 Mar 2011, 14:10
Ideology: Marxism-Leninism
Komsomol
Post 18 Jul 2014, 12:31
Mayakovsky's poetry was praised under Stalin, so I don't quite know why you cite him.

Two good reads:
http://ml-review.ca/aml/AllianceIssues/ ... INART.html
http://ml-review.ca/aml/AllianceIssues/ ... ILL53.html
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Defected to the U.S.S.R.: 16 Jul 2014, 21:53
Ideology: Other Leftist
Pioneer
Post 18 Jul 2014, 12:41
http://english.pravda.ru/business/finan ... akovsky-0/

You can find more sources if you find current Pravda unreliable.

Of course he was praised. Just like any Catholic saint is praised. After dead.

Even Stalin once said that Maiakovsky was "their best".

But, this changes nothing. Official praise is not equal to political freedom, and Maiakovsky was anything but free under Stalin.

Maiakovsky ephitomizes the soviet opression over artists after Stalin rose to power.

Socialism Realism was the norm, nothing like the progressive art that was seen during the revolution.
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Defected to the U.S.S.R.: 01 Mar 2011, 14:10
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Komsomol
Post 19 Jul 2014, 15:28
So you're saying that Mayakovsky's work was praised and yet was simultaneously prohibited? Which one is it?
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Defected to the U.S.S.R.: 16 Jul 2014, 21:53
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Post 19 Jul 2014, 18:21
When did i said it was prohibited ?

Strawman.

Maiakovsky was under pressure to abandon his poetry and help rebuild soviet society by working for the party.

He felt that pressure and then decided to suicide with a shot at his heart.

His last words : "There are no space left for love in this world."

He felt betrayed.

AFTER dead, the only way he can serve the country is with what he left as his poetry and he cannot critize or put the party into danger, so - in the same manner that a catholic saint is treated by the catholic church - he become decorated and celebrated by the party. (what other use he could have ?)

The praise after dead is not enough to dismiss that he was under pressure to not write progressive poetry and instead work with socialism realism, as much as your strawman tries to make it look that way.

Its no surprise, and can be easily detected, that the fact that the once modern, inspiring, sometimes shocking, russian art of the revolution later becomes dull, ininspired, boring.

Thats clearly the effect of stalinist pressure over artists.

Artists did not simply decide "hey, lets praise our great wheelsman, genial guide of the people, comrade Stalin !". They were pressured to do so.
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Defected to the U.S.S.R.: 01 Mar 2011, 14:10
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Komsomol
Post 19 Jul 2014, 22:25
You said that Mayakovsky was forced to adhere to socialist realism. You said that he had a falling out with Stalin. And yet Mayakovsky's poems were praised as examples of socialist realism.
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Defected to the U.S.S.R.: 16 Jul 2014, 21:53
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Post 20 Jul 2014, 00:59
Maiakovsky example of socialism realism ?

Can you show me any unbiased source to back that ?
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