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Situation of Soviet Jews in USSR with Sex Offenders in US

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Defected to the U.S.S.R.: 24 Jun 2011, 08:37
Party Bureaucrat
Post 11 Apr 2012, 01:44
well, I think in this case, it's less idealism and more a disinclination to view it as a matter of state policy
Soviet America is Free America!

Under communism, there is no freedom; you are not free to live in poverty, be homeless, to be without an education, to starve, or to be without a job
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Defected to the U.S.S.R.: 30 Mar 2010, 01:20
Ideology: None
Forum Commissar
Post 11 Apr 2012, 02:10
That's my attitude here as well and why I drew attention to the fact that ethnic and racial hostilities seem to be much worse these days than they were in the Soviet period.
[+-]
Soviet cogitations: 59
Defected to the U.S.S.R.: 04 Nov 2009, 17:36
Pioneer
Post 11 Apr 2012, 05:51
Shigalyov wrote:
Do you realize how difficult it was to leave prior to very late in the Soviet era? Even in countries where people are free to leave it is not such an easy thing to do. Leaving your home and everything familiar in the hope that the place you are going to will be better (something you can hardly be certain about).
It's not something you can do lightly.

Well he was saying that it was "very hard to bear," but he left much later than the very late Soviet era, long after emigration became much easier.
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Defected to the U.S.S.R.: 02 Apr 2012, 22:51
New Comrade (Say hi & be nice to me!)
Post 12 Apr 2012, 00:06
I know there were several hundred very talented and famous Jews in USSR. I know that. These are just hundreds. And there were 3 millions Jews in USSR. Just like i read in newspaper that most people in Obama Administration are Jews. The reporter asked question if Obama has a huge sympathy to Jews, but this is not true. Jews created USA as super power, so what. The fact that in USSR there were a lot of talented Jewish people in such huge numbers, that even with huge discrimination government chose to let some of them to do something for state does not mean that there were no huge discrimination. There were some Universities where Jews were not allowed. When a jew applied for job, they asked for passport.
Of course I was working as a lead engineer before I immigrated, but not because there was no discrimination. They just could not find somebody with my level to replace, in many cases with Jews it was impossible.
Even antisemitic people who were in power needed best people to do a job for them. I am former soviet jew and i know everything about role jewish people played in former USSR.
Only for ordinary millions of Jews situation was not comfortable and very very bad. For example in my home city in 1941 year 12,000 Jews were executed by Germany Nazi with help of many people from Russian population. No one escaped, Russian people helped Nazi to find them. I read Black book, also Grossman's book. You need to know Russian language to understand that, but I think some points of view here are very naive.
I think 2 millions immigrated only in Israel. This was a huge hit for USSR economy
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Defected to the U.S.S.R.: 30 Mar 2010, 01:20
Ideology: None
Forum Commissar
Post 12 Apr 2012, 00:25
So do think that anti-Semitism in the USSR was a consequence of the Communist system or not?

estrinfima wrote:
I read Black book, also Grossman's book. You need to know Russian language to understand that, but I think some points of view here are very naive.
Are you talking about The Black Book Of Communism or Vasily Grossman and Ilya Ehrenburg's Black Book (World War II)?
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Soviet cogitations: 4381
Defected to the U.S.S.R.: 07 Oct 2004, 22:04
Ideology: Marxism-Leninism
Resident Soviet
Post 12 Apr 2012, 00:53
estrinfima wrote:
I think 2 millions immigrated only in Israel. This was a huge hit for USSR economy


We can argue about numbers, but I'll start off by saying that I completely agree that the Jews emigrating through the 1970s and 1980s had a huge impact on not only the economy, but on all areas of society, politics, and culture as well. I would go so far as to say that the emigration may have played a significant role in the stagnation of the Soviet economy, and that it was a tremendous mistake on the part of the Soviet government to bow to American pressure in exchange for some comparatively minor trade-related benefits. Instead of just letting them leave, the government should have carefully documented every individual's circumstances to determine what the main cause of hoped-for emigration was, and if workplace or other discrimination, rather than sausage immigration, were found to be the main causes, those would have to be dealt with in accordance with the law. Of course the results wouldn't be perfect, but it would hopefully convince many Jews that the Soviet Union was their real homeland.

estrinfima wrote:
I know there were several hundred very talented and famous Jews in USSR. I know that. These are just hundreds. And there were 3 millions Jews in USSR.


How am I supposed to find lists of the professions and achievements of millions of people? These hundreds represented the very best in their respective professions, and for each one of them there were undoubtedly thousands more below them. One of the lists even explicitly mentions this.

estrinfima wrote:
Just like i read in newspaper that most people in Obama Administration are Jews. The reporter asked question if Obama has a huge sympathy to Jews, but this is not true. Jews created USA as super power, so what.


I'll leave this aside, given that we're talking about Soviet Jews here. Perhaps someone else can answer it more effectively.

estrinfima wrote:
The fact that in USSR there were a lot of talented Jewish people in such huge numbers, that even with huge discrimination government chose to let some of them to do something for state does not mean that there were no huge discrimination. There were some Universities where Jews were not allowed. When a jew applied for job, they asked for passport.
Of course I was working as a lead engineer before I immigrated, but not because there was no discrimination. They just could not find somebody with my level to replace, in many cases with Jews it was impossible.
Even antisemitic people who were in power needed best people to do a job for them. I am former soviet jew and i know everything about role jewish people played in former USSR.


You're really digging holes in your own argument by noting that Jews filled top positions even with 'huge discrimination'. Also, I know this type of argument that the government allowed Jews to the top simply because they were 'useful'. Author and satiric Vladimir Voinovich has made it countless times in his work, and while it's a good explanation for why Jews could fill high posts despite unbearable repression and discrimination, it's not the most convincing of arguments to someone who doesn't have an ax to grind about the Soviet state. Interestingly, although you've apparently carried over your hate of the Soviet system to that of Russia, Voinovich appears more satisfied with the state of affairs today, which to me is simply disgusting, given that skinheads are allowed to walk the streets and that some politicians, social commentators and academics openly preach their hate speech against Jews.

Also, as myself and others have noted, there is nobody here saying that discrimination did not exist at all. At the local level, antisemitism could prevail, given that the Russian Empire had long been prone to antisemitic discrimination, conducting pogroms as late as 1913, and that Russia was a peasant country whose urban and educated elite had grown up in the course of merely a couple generations. What most of us are saying is that antisemitism was never a conscious state policy that directed all national, regional and local leaders to discriminate against Jews in the ways you've mentioned, and that among the anti Semites were also many good people who didn't care about ethnicity or cultural background; many true believer communists who had accepted the Soviet identity above the national. My family never had problems with Jews. To them and millions like them (I would say the vast majority of the population prior to the post-Soviet period), they were just just other ordinary Soviet people who worked, fought, loved, suffered, laughed and cried along with everyone else.

estrinfima wrote:
For example in my home city in 1941 year 12,000 Jews were executed by Germany Nazi with help of many people from Russian population. No one escaped, Russian people helped Nazi to find them.


Out of curiosity, what city was this? I'm just wondering because from what I've read, a large majority of the murders of Jews with the help of the Nazis occurred in Soviet territories that had only been part of the USSR from 1940 (Western Ukraine, Western Belarus, the Baltics). From what I've read, many Jews even from these areas were saved from destruction through evacuation to Central Asia and Siberia. Also, the execution of Jews 'with the help of local Slavs' does not really prove your initial point about the Soviet state's discrimination. It only goes to show that all people, whether 'culturally sophisticated' Germans or 'backward peasant' East Slavs, can be filled with hate without the slightest understanding of reality. Please don't forget the half million Jews who fought in the Red Army alongside their Slavic counterparts to forever crush the menace of Nazi hate from the world, or that only this victory made it possible for even many advanced countries of the West to understand what monstrosities racial intolerance can bring out in humanity.
"The thing about capitalism is that it sounds awful on paper and is horrendous in practice. Communism sounds wonderful on paper and when it was put into practice it was done pretty well for what they had to work with." -MiG
Soviet cogitations: 19
Defected to the U.S.S.R.: 02 Apr 2012, 22:51
New Comrade (Say hi & be nice to me!)
Post 12 Apr 2012, 04:29
YGB85 wrote:
Do you realize how difficult it was to leave prior to very late in the Soviet era? Even in countries where people are free to leave it is not such an easy thing to do. Leaving your home and everything familiar in the hope that the place you are going to will be better (something you can hardly be certain about).
It's not something you can do lightly.


To immigrate to USA Jews needed to have a close relative living in USA. After USSR was destroyed it was a real disaster. They name it Wild 90th.
Huge unemployment, inflation, criminals, just like Chicago under Al Capone. Also we lived close to Chernobyl. Soviet Industry was destroyed completely
and gangsters became oligarchs.
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Defected to the U.S.S.R.: 29 Jun 2010, 16:09
Ideology: Marxism-Leninism
Komsomol
Post 12 Apr 2012, 05:07
Quote:
To immigrate to USA Jews needed to have a close relative living in USA. After USSR was destroyed it was a real disaster. They name it Wild 90th.
Huge unemployment, inflation, criminals, just like Chicago under Al Capone. Also we lived close to Chernobyl. Soviet Industry was destroyed completely
and gangsters became oligarchs.


By admitting this do you admit that Russia (as well as the other 14 republics) was better off as a part of the USSR?
Партия всегда права.
Die Partei hat immer recht.
The Party is always right.
Soviet cogitations: 19
Defected to the U.S.S.R.: 02 Apr 2012, 22:51
New Comrade (Say hi & be nice to me!)
Post 12 Apr 2012, 05:13
Quote:

By admitting this do you admit that Russia (as well as the other 14 republics) was better off as a part of the USSR?


I think Russia was destroyed too. many plants was destroyed, and privatization was a real crime of Russian Government
Soviet cogitations: 19
Defected to the U.S.S.R.: 02 Apr 2012, 22:51
New Comrade (Say hi & be nice to me!)
Post 12 Apr 2012, 05:21
soviet78 wrote:

Out of curiosity, what city was this? I'm just wondering because from what I've read, a large majority of the murders of Jews with the help of the Nazis occurred in Soviet territories that had only been part of the USSR from 1940 (Western Ukraine, Western Belarus, the Baltics). From what I've read, many Jews even from these areas were saved from destruction through evacuation to Central Asia and Siberia. Also, the execution of Jews 'with the help of local Slavs' does not really prove your initial point about the Soviet state's discrimination. It only goes to show that all people, whether 'culturally sophisticated' Germans or 'backward peasant' East Slavs, can be filled with hate without the slightest understanding of reality. Please don't forget the half million Jews who fought in the Red Army alongside their Slavic counterparts to forever crush the menace of Nazi hate from the world, or that only this victory made it possible for even many advanced countries of the West to understand what monstrosities racial intolerance can bring out in humanity.


It was City Pinsk, Western Belarus.

Recently Russian magazine in USA 'Chayka' published article about jews discrimination in State Universities and colleges. There was a lot of individual stories. I can tell you my own.
Soviet cogitations: 2407
Defected to the U.S.S.R.: 01 Nov 2003, 13:17
Ideology: Other
Forum Commissar
Post 12 Apr 2012, 11:49
So what was it like? Did you have trouble making friends with Russians?
[+-]
Soviet cogitations: 59
Defected to the U.S.S.R.: 04 Nov 2009, 17:36
Pioneer
Post 12 Apr 2012, 19:18
estrinfima wrote:
I know there were several hundred very talented and famous Jews in USSR. I know that. These are just hundreds. And there were 3 millions Jews in USSR. Just like i read in newspaper that most people in Obama Administration are Jews. The reporter asked question if Obama has a huge sympathy to Jews, but this is not true. Jews created USA as super power, so what. The fact that in USSR there were a lot of talented Jewish people in such huge numbers, that even with huge discrimination government chose to let some of them to do something for state does not mean that there were no huge discrimination. There were some Universities where Jews were not allowed. When a jew applied for job, they asked for passport.
Of course I was working as a lead engineer before I immigrated, but not because there was no discrimination. They just could not find somebody with my level to replace, in many cases with Jews it was impossible.
Even antisemitic people who were in power needed best people to do a job for them. I am former soviet jew and i know everything about role jewish people played in former USSR.
Only for ordinary millions of Jews situation was not comfortable and very very bad.

What you are saying sounds like a conspiracy theory, one which is not any more credible than the conspiracy theories that claim that Jews were running the country...
And you are a bit nationalistic, saying that only Jews could do some jobs well enough.


Quote:
For example in my home city in 1941 year 12,000 Jews were executed by Germany Nazi with help of many people from Russian population. No one escaped, Russian people helped Nazi to find them.

There were always collaborators, but they were in the minority.


Quote:
I think 2 millions immigrated only in Israel. This was a huge hit for USSR economy

Emigration of Soviet Jews by year:
http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jso ... uemig.html
So most Jews left in 1989 and after (when the future was uncertain and not only Jews wanted to leave). Before that less than 285,000 left.



estrinfima wrote:
To immigrate to USA Jews needed to have a close relative living in USA. After USSR was destroyed it was a real disaster. They name it Wild 90th.
Huge unemployment, inflation, criminals, just like Chicago under Al Capone. Also we lived close to Chernobyl. Soviet Industry was destroyed completely
and gangsters became oligarchs.

You did not need a close relative to immigrate to Israel.
Your response just proves that you left because of the drop in living standards and not due to anti-semitism.
Also, the oligarchs were not all gangsters. Many of the well known ones were Soviet Jews who held prominent positions in Soviet society, which was anti-semitic according to you...



estrinfima wrote:
Recently Russian magazine in USA 'Chayka' published article about jews discrimination in State Universities and colleges. There was a lot of individual stories. I can tell you my own.

Like I said before, I don't trust the stories of immigrants about the USSR. Some might be true, but you cannot conclude from them that USSR was anti-semitic.
You yourself said that educated Jews leaving the country was a huge hit for the Soviet economy, so don't you think that if there were limitations for Jews entering universities and colleges, that these limitations might have had to do with this problem and not anti-semitism?
Soviet cogitations: 19
Defected to the U.S.S.R.: 02 Apr 2012, 22:51
New Comrade (Say hi & be nice to me!)
Post 12 Apr 2012, 19:23
Discrimination against soviet Jews came from Soviet government. i do not know why you are trying to deny this fact. Here is one article.

http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jso ... 14969.html

There are no indications of any official or unofficial numerus clausus existing in the Soviet Union until the last "Black Years" of Stalin's rule (1948–53). Even then discrimination against Jews seeking admission to Soviet universities seems to have been related to the general atmosphere of distrust and enmity, engendered by the anti-Jewish trend of official policy, rather than the result of a regulated system of limited percentages. Though legally and openly there has never been a numerus clausus for Jews in the U.S.S.R., young Jews seeking admission to certain prestige universities, or to studies leading to positions entailing use of classified information or representative status in the state or on its behalf, increasingly encountered unexpected artificial difficulties in the 1950s and 1960s. Many young Jews complained of having been rejected despite brilliant achievements in the entrance examinations in favor of non-Jews with fewer scholastic qualifications. A number of statements were made by Prime Minister Nikita Khrushchev (for instance to a French socialist delegation in 1957; see Réalités, May 1957) or by the minister of culture, Yekaterina Furtseva (to a correspondent of the pro-Communist American magazine, National Guardian, June 25, 1956) confirming the existence of a general policy to regulate cadres according to nationality–particularly and explicitly by reducing the proportion of Jews in the intelligentsia and in government departments. These statements seemed to validate the assumption of many Soviet citizens as well as of scholars abroad that, as W. Korey affirms in his study on the legal position of Soviet Jewry (1970), "unpublished governmental regulations appear to have been issued, whether in written or oral form, which establish quotas limiting educational or employment opportunities for Jews." In 1959 the minister for higher education, U.P. Yelyutin, vehemently denied the existence of such quotas, and in 1962 the U.S.S.R. ratified the UNESCO Convention against Discrimination in Education. However, some evidence to the contrary was found in 1963 in Soviet journals such as Kommunist and, particularly, the "Bulletin of Higher Education," which acknowledged the existence of "annually planned preferential admission quotas." An American specialist on Soviet education, N. de Witt, reached the conclusion in 1961 that a quota system existed "to the severe disadvantage of the Jewish population." According to de Witt the principle applied makes "the representation of any national or ethnic grouping in overall higher education enrolment" proportional to its size in the total Soviet population. He presented statistical data which showed that between 1935 and 1958 "the index of representation (in higher education) rose for most nationalities, but fell for Georgians and all national minorities, with a very drastic decline for the Jews."

The official statistics on the number of Jewish students, which apparently contradicted this assertion, were misleading (as some scholars, like Alec Nove and J.A. Newth, have found after a meticulous analysis, published in 1970), mainly because these overall numbers included not only students in every kind of "institute" and field of study, but also external (i.e., correspondence) students. The question whether Jews were "able to get into universities of their choice on equal terms with competitors of other nationalities" remained open. The percentage of Jewish students (including evening and correspondence students) fell from 14.4% in 1928–29 to 3.2% in 1960–61. Though the official percentage of Jews in the total population was in 1960–61 approximately 1.1% and in the urban population 2.2%, the above-mentioned percentage of Jewish students should be considered, according to A. Nove and J.A. Newth, to be proportionately low.

The majority of the Jewish proletariat perished during the German invasion in World War II, and there seems to be no doubt that, as a purely urban element consisting of white-collar workers, professional men, engineers, scientists, and people occupied in retail trade "a much larger proportion of Jews than of other nationalities endeavors to obtain higher education. It is this fact that may well give rise to discrimination. Some officials may feel that it is wrong for Jews to be so overwhelmingly non-proletarian in their composition. Others, particularly in the national republics, are concerned to provide special educational advantages for the relatively backward peoples of their own nationality." This conclusion of A. Nove and J.A. Newth seems to be borne out by a large number of case histories related by Soviet Jews themselves.
Soviet cogitations: 19
Defected to the U.S.S.R.: 02 Apr 2012, 22:51
New Comrade (Say hi & be nice to me!)
Post 12 Apr 2012, 19:50
Political Interest wrote:
So what was it like? Did you have trouble making friends with Russians?

Yes. Some russian people did not like jews. It depended from their family. Russian population were divided. Some have no any problems.
I attended japanese fight classes for 3 years. There were situations of physical aggressions against me by people who recognized me as a jew and got very angry, just because they are close to a jew. I was lucky i did not have Jewish appearance, so usually people started antisemitic talk with, thinking I am Russian. I had to agree with them. Any Jewish immigrant may tell you the same stories. You got tired then at some point you can tell:
I want to leave and never come back, and i hate to be useful in any way.
Soviet cogitations: 19
Defected to the U.S.S.R.: 02 Apr 2012, 22:51
New Comrade (Say hi & be nice to me!)
Post 12 Apr 2012, 20:05
YGB85 wrote:
You yourself said that educated Jews leaving the country was a huge hit for the Soviet economy, so don't you think that if there were limitations for Jews entering universities and colleges, that these limitations might have had to do with this problem and not anti-semitism?


you think this was a good idea. I heard this from some people in USSR:'Why we need to get Jews educated, they will immigrate soon'
this was a very bad thinking by anti semites. like they found an excuse to do nothing. Soviet government must followed their own laws, but they did nothing to stop discrimination.
Soviet cogitations: 19
Defected to the U.S.S.R.: 02 Apr 2012, 22:51
New Comrade (Say hi & be nice to me!)
Post 12 Apr 2012, 20:19
YGB85 wrote:
Also, the oligarchs were not all gangsters. Many of the well known ones were Soviet Jews who held prominent positions in Soviet society, which was anti-semitic according to you...


Believe me all capitalists in modern Russia were breaking all laws in 1990th. Privatization was a crime. I recently read something about this privatization.
All soviet industry was destroyed. I do not care who was Oligarchs, they belong to prisons. There were some people with Lenin with Jewish last names,
you think all jews responsible for revolution. Some russian people blame Jews for communist revolution
[+-]
Soviet cogitations: 59
Defected to the U.S.S.R.: 04 Nov 2009, 17:36
Pioneer
Post 12 Apr 2012, 20:58
estrinfima wrote:
Discrimination against soviet Jews came from Soviet government. i do not know why you are trying to deny this fact. Here is one article.

http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jso ... 14969.html

So where do you see it talking about anti-semitism?
It talks about possible quotas for higher education enrollment, which did not only affect Jews.
Of course the percentage of Jews among students dropped significantly from the 1920's to 1960's, since other nationalities progressed during the period in between and also started to seek higher education.



estrinfima wrote:
Some russian people did not like jews. It depended from their family. Russian population were divided. Some have no any problems.
I attended japanese fight classes for 3 years. There were situations of physical aggressions against me by people who recognized me as a jew and got very angry, just because they are close to a jew. I was lucky i did not have Jewish appearance, so usually people started antisemitic talk with, thinking I am Russian. I had to agree with them. Any Jewish immigrant may tell you the same stories. You got tired then at some point you can tell:
I want to leave and never come back, and i hate to be useful in any way.

Well I don't know how life was in Western Belarus, but what makes you think that all of the USSR was like that?
The people were Russian or Belarusian?



estrinfima wrote:
you think this was a good idea. I heard this from some people in USSR:'Why we need to get Jews educated, they will immigrate soon'
this was a very bad thinking by anti semites. like they found an excuse to do nothing. Soviet government must followed their own laws, but they did nothing to stop discrimination.

You see anti-semites everywhere...
I am not saying that was a good idea, but that is not anti-semitism.



estrinfima wrote:
Believe me all capitalists in modern Russia were breaking all laws in 1990th. Privatization was a crime. I recently read something about this privatization.
All soviet industry was destroyed. I do not care who was Oligarchs, they belong to prisons. There were some people with Lenin with Jewish last names,
you think all jews responsible for revolution. Some russian people blame Jews for communist revolution

Jews were not responsible for the Revolution of course, but played a significant role in it, and there is nothing bad about that.
As for the Jewish oligarchs, I just pointed out that they were highly successful in the USSR even before becoming businessmen; it does not seem like they had problems with anti-semitism.
Soviet cogitations: 19
Defected to the U.S.S.R.: 02 Apr 2012, 22:51
New Comrade (Say hi & be nice to me!)
Post 12 Apr 2012, 23:12
YGB85 wrote:
So where do you see it talking about anti-semitism?
It talks about possible quotas for higher education enrollment, which did not only affect Jews.
Of course the percentage of Jews among students dropped significantly from the 1920's to 1960's, since other nationalities progressed during the period in between and also started to seek higher education.


In 1976 jews were banned from many Universities. Quotas for nationalities are very bad thing. nationalities were only in passports. In reality it should be
the same people, like in US there in no Germans of French people, but here are all Americans. There are no quotas for jews in USA.
I do not know if this was pure anti semitism but I know there were some antisemitic people on soviet high level.
This was wrong and led to immigration and huge hit on Soviet Economy.
do not try to Justify this, this is wrong. All difference between jews and non jews in USSR was chapter5 in Passport. Jews did not know their religious,
forgot language, know nothing about culture. That were Russian people with jewish origin. why then soviet government established these quotas.
They better deleted Chapter 5 in passport and put there Soviet Citizen for all. Then who is having better knowledge could enter the University, not because he is Ukrainian Nationality. Here in USA everybody name soviet jews as Russians.
Then what was these quotas? in my opinion that was pure racism, like nazi cared who have how many jewish blood: half or quoter. Soviet government cared too, there were records.
Soviet cogitations: 2407
Defected to the U.S.S.R.: 01 Nov 2003, 13:17
Ideology: Other
Forum Commissar
Post 13 Apr 2012, 01:03
Quote:
Yes. Some russian people did not like jews. It depended from their family. Russian population were divided. Some have no any problems.
I attended japanese fight classes for 3 years. There were situations of physical aggressions against me by people who recognized me as a jew and got very angry, just because they are close to a jew. I was lucky i did not have Jewish appearance, so usually people started antisemitic talk with, thinking I am Russian. I had to agree with them. Any Jewish immigrant may tell you the same stories. You got tired then at some point you can tell:
I want to leave and never come back, and i hate to be useful in any way.


It is like this in any country. You will get ethnic groups who dislike others. One group will hate the other group, it is not only Jews who are disliked.

In my own case I have had people give me a hard time, they say "white man" this "white man" that or some other stupidity.

So you are now living in Russia? Is the anti-Jewish feeling even worse now?
JAM
[+-]
Soviet cogitations: 172
Defected to the U.S.S.R.: 09 Mar 2012, 02:37
Ideology: Marxism-Leninism
Pioneer
Post 13 Apr 2012, 01:28
estrinfima wrote:


In 1976 jews were banned from many Universities. Quotas for nationalities are very bad thing. nationalities were only in passports. In reality it should be
the same people, like in US there in no Germans of French people, but here are all Americans. There are no quotas for jews in USA.
I do not know if this was pure anti semitism but I know there were some antisemitic people on soviet high level.
This was wrong and led to immigration and huge hit on Soviet Economy.
do not try to Justify this, this is wrong. All difference between jews and non jews in USSR was chapter5 in Passport. Jews did not know their religious,
forgot language, know nothing about culture. That were Russian people with jewish origin. why then soviet government established these quotas.
They better deleted Chapter 5 in passport and put there Soviet Citizen for all. Then who is having better knowledge could enter the University, not because he is Ukrainian Nationality. Here in USA everybody name soviet jews as Russians.
Then what was these quotas? in my opinion that was pure racism, like nazi cared who have how many jewish blood: half or quoter. Soviet government cared too, there were records.


I think that what YGB85 was referring to wasn't other nationalities outside USSR but inside of it. The universality of education in USSR allowed other nationalities from poor regions to get access to education.

Estrinfima, you cannot expect a ideological system to change the mentality of a people in one day. The anti-semitism was strongly rooted in Russia and the regions surrounding it before 1917. Did you know that the Jews were legally barred from living in the Russian Empire until the late eighteenth century? Do you know the origin of The Protocols of the Elders of Zion? For a jew living in Russia before the revolution of 1917 was a nightmare. The Russian Empire became notorious as the site of pogroms, especially after the death of Alexander II. The pogroms of 1917–1921 were even much larger in scale and more horrific than the earlier pogroms. It is estimated that nearly sixty thousand Jews were killed, mostly by the White Army opponents of Bolshevism and by Ukrainian nationalists.

The fact is that until 1950's for the first time in history, Russian (and Ukrainian, Belorussian, and other) Jews enjoyed complete legal and social equality. The Soviet government financially supported Jewish cultural institutions such as schools, theaters, magazines, research institutes and book publishing—as long as that culture was Soviet, socialist, secular, and expressed in Yiddish (but not Hebrew). For about fifteen years, Jews had free access to all forms of higher education and to all areas of the state-run economy. Whereas Jews could not even be policemen under the czarist regime, under the Soviets some Jews served as heads of the secret police, as officers in high military and government posts, as editors of important newspapers and journals, and as high-ranking administrators of research institutes and other academic institutions. A Jew served as foreign minister as late as 1939, another as chief political commissar of the Soviet army. There were Jews on the Politburo, the Communist Party’s highest organ, as well as Jewish ministers of the Soviet government, ambassadors, and occupants of leading positions in many fields of endeavor, most of which had been completely closed to Jews before 1917.
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