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Soviet article attacking Cybernetics 1953 by Materialist

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Post 10 Mar 2019, 14:01
Published in the journal " Problems of Philosophy " , 1953 city of , number 5, p. 210-219.

Among the modern bourgeois sociological theories aimed at protecting capitalism, not the last place is occupied by “theories”, fetishizing technology, trying to portray it as the main engine of social development. Some bourgeois scholars tend to attribute all social contradictions that exist in capitalist society, all misfortunes and misfortunes attributed to technology. In the “mystical power” of the technology, they see the causes of wars, unemployment, crises. These "sociologists" call for the destruction of technology and a return to the idyllic times of primitive life, when there were no cars or social conflicts. Other "sociologists" from the same camp fetishize the technique as a positive force that can supposedly eliminate all the contradictions of the capitalist system.

All these speculations of the scientists of lackeys of imperialism have nothing in common with science and testify only to the degeneration of modern bourgeois science.

The development of technology depends on the nature of the economic system and is determined by the needs of social production. Socialist social relations open up unlimited scope for the development of productive forces, for the maximum improvement of production technology.

It was only under a socialist social system that that grandiose technical revolution in all areas of the national economy proved to be feasible, thanks to which the Soviet Union surpassed the advanced capitalist countries in a short time.

The colossal successes achieved in the industrialization of our country, the steady progressive development of production technology, the unprecedented increase in the history of creative activity and the initiative of millions of working people, manifested in invention and rationalization proposals in the millions, show that socialism, as the highest social order, created everything conditions conducive to the flourishing of technology. All this is entirely due to the operation of the basic economic law of socialism, aimed at ensuring the maximum satisfaction of the constantly growing material and cultural needs of the whole society through continuous growth and improvement of socialist production based on high technology [1] (Formulated by JV Stalin in his paper “Economic Problems of Socialism in the USSR” - approx. Ed. RP) .

The improvement of socialist production fully meets the urgent needs of a socialist society. The progress of science and technology is in full accordance with the relations of production in a socialist society.

In capitalist countries, where the development of science and technology is subject to the action of the basic economic law of modern capitalism, technology develops in those areas of production that bring the highest profits . In the pre-imperialist period, capitalism contributed to the development of technology in almost all fields. True, even then, owing to the fundamental contradictions inherent in the capitalist system, those technical inventions and scientific discoveries that did not promise immediate profit to the capitalists were inhibited. This reactionary tendency of capitalism manifests itself with particular force at the present stage of its development, causing an ugly, one-sided trend in the development of technology.. In capitalist countries, they do not spare the cost of improving technology only in those branches of production that serve the interests of war — the most profitable business of the capitalists.

The development of technology in the military industry of the capitalist countries, some bourgeois sociologists are trying to explain the mystical forces of the technology itself, supposedly dictating the scope of its application, rather than imperialist policies.

Thus, the invention of the atomic bomb was announced by scientists as lackeys of imperialism as the beginning of the “atomic age”, which requires a new, “atomic sociology”. According to this "sociology," the world is ruled by a "world dictator" - the atomic bomb, and people are powerless to resist it. It determines the direction of development of society, stimulates the development of some areas of production - the military - and requires the reduction of others. Thus, the capitalists are removed from responsibility for war, unemployment, the high cost of livelihood, the housing crisis, etc.

An example of how one-sidedly, for military purposes, the latest advances in technology are used, is the position in the US of a new branch of production — the industry of computers and other complex automatic devices that have a special purpose.

Based on the latest discoveries in the field of radio engineering and television, American designers have created complex computers that solve tasks automatically, using a system of transmission mechanisms and signaling systems that use feedback laws. These machines are able to change the direction of mathematical operations depending on intermediate results.

The design of computers has a long history. Starting from the first adding machine, invented by Leibniz, there is a whole series of various computing devices, each of which carried out more and more complex mathematical operations. Over the past decades, the production of computers has undergone new reconstruction. It resulted in the achievement of full automation of computational operations. Electronic machines are huge units in which, thanks to the use of radio and television equipment, computational operations are performed with exceptional speed. They perform arithmetic operations in thousandths of a second. More complex, integral and differential calculations, requiring highly skilled mathematicians to spend a week's work, are made in minutes and seconds.

The use of such computers is of great importance for the most diverse areas of economic construction. The design of industrial enterprises, residential high-rise buildings, railway and pedestrian bridges and many other structures requires complex mathematical calculations that require the cost of highly skilled labor for many months. Computing machines facilitate and reduce this work to a minimum. With the same success, these machines are used in all complex economic and statistical calculations.

The great advantage of these machines is the complete faultlessness of their actions and the results obtained, whereas errors inevitably creep into the complex calculations produced by mathematicians.

Thanks to computing machines, modern mathematics can solve problems that were considered earlier because of the large number of necessary calculations intractable in a short time. This led to the creation of a new section of applied mathematics, the so-called computer mathematics.

Recently, many other complex, self-regulating machines used in various industries have been created.

As computers, and other automatic devices built with the use of electronics, have spread in many countries. They are successfully used in the Soviet Union, which is a huge construction.

In the United States, computers and other instruments equipped with servomechanisms have been used unilaterally. Computers that produce the most complicated mathematical calculations in an extremely short time are used to control long-range projectiles or aircraft. The possibility of military use of this invention has provided him with widespread practice in the USA.

In the article “Giant brains, or thinking machines,” Edmund Berkeley reports that the Harvard University Computing Lab serves the navy; the laboratory of the University of Pennsylvania works on orders of the army; the machine she built is in the Department of Defense ballistic laboratory in Eberdine (Maryland); the machines, invented by Bell’s telephone company’s laboratory, were purchased by the aeronautics committee and the ballistic laboratory of the Department of Defense.

There is no doubt that in reality the scale of the use of computers in the US military industry is much broader than what the mean but rather eloquent information that is given in the Berkeley article gives.

Around this new invention, which has received such widespread use in the US military industry, American scientists have raised an incredible sensation. Professor of mathematics at the University of Massachusetts Norbert Wiener saw in it another “stage” in the development of mankind, a new “industrial revolution” fraught with enormous social consequences.

According to Wiener, the activity of computers will give the key to the knowledge of a wide variety of natural and social phenomena. This fundamentally vicious idea served Wiener as the basis for creating a new “science” - cybernetics.

In the short term of its existence, cybernetics has gained quite a few supporters among bourgeois scientists working in various fields of knowledge. This is symptomatic for scientists who are forced to cling to the run-down rags of idealistic philosophy and even to such “novelties” of science fiction as cybernetics.

The New York World Telegram newspaper advertised Wiener's conjectures as a scientific feat: “Dr. Wiener did for the knowledge of the human brain what Einstein did for the knowledge of the universe.”

The propaganda of cybernetics received in the capitalist countries on a large scale. Dozens of books, hundreds of magazine and newspaper articles spread false notions about the "new science". Since 1944, conferences of cybernetics have been held annually in New York, in which scientists of various specialties actively participate. Conferences of cybernetics were also held in France and England. Even to India, American exporters brought this rotten ideological product.

Cybernetic apologists believe that the scope of its application is limitless. They argue that cybernetics is of great importance not only to address issues related to telemechanics, self-adjusting devices, reactive mechanisms and servo mechanisms, but even to such areas of knowledge as biology, physiology, psychology and psychopathology. Cybernetic enthusiasts assume that sociology and political economy should also use its theory and methods.

What is this new science - cybernetics? In ancient Greek, the word "cybernetic" means helmsman, and "cyberneticos" - capable of being a helmsman, that is, able to control. Defining the content of cybernetics, Norbert Wiener, without undue modesty, said: "We decided to call cybernetics the entire theoretical area of ​​control and communications, both in the car and in the living organism."

So, first of all, cybernetics sets itself the task of proving the absence of a fundamental difference between a machine and a living organism. The task, to put it mildly, is ungrateful in the 20th century. But, nevertheless, drawing an analogy between the work of complex computing units, containing up to 23 thousand radio tubes, automatically switching, cybernetics argue that the difference between the work of such a "smart" machine and the human brain is only quantitative. A professor at the University of London, John Young, enthusiastically announced to the world that “the brain is a giant computing machine with 15 billion cells instead of the 23 thousand radio tubes found in the largest of all computers designed so far.” And this is by no means a metaphor, but a statement claiming to be scientific!

A more cautious professor at Harvard University, Louis Radenauer, spoke out more cautiously in this respect: "The most sophisticated modern computer corresponds to the level of the nervous system ... a flatworm."

Essentially, in these statements, it is not the fact that they note the difference between the number of “reacting cells”, but the fact that they ignore the qualitative difference between a living organism and a machine.

The founders of cybernetics are admired by the ability of computers to self-regulate, although this whole process, which takes place in computers, takes place according to the laws of that connection, with the help of that automatic signaling and those mechanical devices that are designed by man to the smallest screw. installations.

Rejecting this fundamental qualitative difference between the mechanism and the organism as supposedly insignificant, theorists of new science define calculating machines as self-regulating mechanisms, like “thinking machines”, like “giant brains” and argue that the activity of computers provides the key to knowledge of both biological and social phenomena, which is to do cybernetics.

It is not difficult to establish that these claims of cybernetics reject science two hundred years ago, towards the views of the 18th century French materialist Lamette. In his work “Man-machine”, Lamettree drew an analogy between man and machine. The animal organism, the human being, according to Lamettrie, is subject to the same material laws as the machinery of machines, and is set in motion by the influence of external conditions, which, through the senses and the brain, act on the limbs of the animal and man and put the whole body into action. The machine is also driven by an external force transmitted by a system of mechanisms.

The analogy drawn by Lametri between man and machine, despite its mechanistic character, had a progressive tendency. She was directed against the notions of special divine forces that supposedly control the body, and proved the conditionality of his life by the action of material forces. In contrast to the French thinker of the eighteenth century, modern cybernetics is based on the desire to demean a person, to show that a person can and should be replaced by a machine, but not any person, but only too much, one that is considered a "restless element." To such people, cybernetics is denied the ability of judgment, is conscious and reduces all the activity of their brain to mechanical communication and signaling. Of course, not all cybernetics reached such sociological speculations, but somehow they all serve the same purpose - to divide people into a “thinking administration”, whose activities are not limited to the alarm mechanism, but recognized as creative, and “workers with average abilities”, which are equated to mechanisms. In this respect, cybernetics turns out to be only a kind of technocratic theory that was common in the countries of imperialism, which emerged at the end of the 19th century, together with imperialism.

Modern technocrats - cybernetics - have injected a thick, science-like fog around their hierarchical theory. They conduct a "comparative study of the functioning of computers and human thought," the nervous system and transmission mechanisms, and come to the conclusion that "an ultrafast computer is an almost ideal model for understanding the problems that arise in studying the nervous system."

George Wibern, anatomy professor at the University of Glasgow, wrote in an article published in 1952: “Cybernetics approach the problem of nervous activity from a purely functional point of view and see brain activity as a whole as electronic devices of a modern communications system and servomechanisms, trying to use them in terms of information theory and statistics. "

Similar mechanistic ideas about the brain are expressed at a time when science in the face of Russian scientists I. M. Sechenov and I. P. Pavlova created a study on the physiology of higher nervous activity of animals and humans, illuminating brain activity from consistently materialistic positions, giving a real solution to the problem about the attitude of thinking to being, consciousness to matter.

The most progressive doctrine of modern science encounters furious resistance from the reactionaries of science. Since they are not able to find scientific arguments against the teachings of I. P. Pavlov, they have to take the path of falsification and distortion of this doctrine. Without any doubt, they endow the computer with the properties of the central nervous system. “Nothing prevents a computing machine from demonstrating conditioned reflexes,” says Wiener, referring to the self-regulating machine invented by Gray Walter, which can be set in motion with a whistle. This machine approaches the target, if the latter emits a faint light, and repels it, if the target produces strong radiation, it is able to bypass obstacles. And yet, it’s just a sound driven mechanism

According to the teachings of I. P. Pavlov, the brain regulates all the functions of the organism, all its vital activity. The brain is an organ of human cognitive and creative activity, the material substrate of its psyche. According to I. P. Pavlov, “the nervous system on our planet is an inexpressibly most complex and subtlest instrument of intercourse, the connection of numerous parts of an organism among themselves and of an organism as a complex system with an infinite number of external influences” (I.P. Pavlov. Soch. T. III, p. 559).

The cerebral cortex is a system of analyzers, that is, those complex instruments that perceive all the phenomena of reality, analyze and synthesize them. All functional activity of the cortex is correlated with its anatomical structure. The very activity of the brain is due to exposure to it through the sensory devices of the analyzers — the eye, ear, skin, etc. — numerous stimuli of the external world and the internal environment of the body. All this activity is strictly determined by the effects on the brain from the outside and is a reflex, that is, the answer to these effects.

IP Pavlov's immortal merit is the harmonious doctrine he created about brain reflex activity, establishing significant differences between the innate, unconditional reflexes formed during the long evolution of a species and acquired in the individual life of an animal, conditional reflexes formed in those cases when the action of an external stimulus coincides in time with the unconditioned reflex or immediately precedes it.

Each stimulation, perceived by peripheral nerve devices and the central end of the analyzer, causes excitement in it, which spreads to the neighboring areas of the cortex, and then concentrates again in the initial section. Different stimuli, depending on their biological significance for the organism, can cause different processes in the cortex — excitement or inhibition, with the same tendency of any of these processes to spread throughout the cortex and subsequent concentration in the initial segment. The interaction of the processes of excitation and inhibition, their alternation and mutual induction are the objective laws of higher nervous activity.

One of the most important discoveries of I.P.Pavlov is the establishment of the fact that a person’s activity is accompanied by the usual numerous external stimuli acting directly on the organs of sight, hearing and other analyzers of the first signaling system, which is joined by the second signaling system of reality - speech that introduces principle in the higher nervous activity of man. The word for a person is a special kind of irritant, of a comprehensive nature, not comparable with any other stimuli of the first signal system common to humans and animals. Thanks to speech, which gives a person the possibility of distraction and at the same time generalizing the signals of the previous system, the thought of a person is clothed in the most flexible and expressive form. By this, the principle is introduced into the higher nervous activity of a person.

The teaching of IP Pavlov on higher nervous activity is the natural-scientific basis of materialistic psychology. It puts the human psyche on the firm ground of the objective laws of nature, while idealistic psychology envelops it with a mystical cover. Based on the laws of higher nervous activity, discovered by the great physiologist, materialistic psychology gives a truly scientific explanation of human mental activity, shows how the brain's work determines the purposeful activity of a person who managed to adapt to nature, create that artificial environment, that material and spiritual culture that is immeasurably high raised it above the rest of the animal world. Man, thanks to the work of the brain, which has reached the most complex structure, was able to penetrate the secrets of nature, formulate its laws

This applies, in particular, to computing machines, which are also created by the human brain - this most perfect creation of nature.

It took us a certain digression to the physiology of higher nervous activity in order to show all the inconsistency of the analogies carried out by cybernetics between the computer and the brain.

It is difficult for scientists lackeys of capitalism to deny the greatest achievement of Pavlovian physiology, but since it is a serious obstacle to the creation of scientific phantasmagoria, they are in a hurry to declare the teachings of IP Pavlov ... surpassed. In the article "The Hypothesis of Cybernetics," placed in No. 5 of the British Journal of Philosophy of Science, 1951, John Wisdom writes: "Cybernetics is the science of feedback in animals ... Neurology can now take a new step forward compared to the capital work of Pavlov" .

What is this step forward? “All that we know,” writes the same author, “is that the brain is less like a system of levers and gears than a radar system or a thermostat ...” With the help of such sophistic tricks Wisdom simply dodges confirmation of his ignorant statement.

In conclusion of the article, the author thinks about whether he has intercepted the assessment of cybernetics, and declares with regret: “True, cybernetics overlooks the spiritual aspect of the action ... the one-sidedness of their predecessors (behaviorists, etc.). ”

So cybernetics "overlooks" only the mind . Wisdom vaguely calls him "one of the related elements." American behaviorists for half a century before cybernetics have created such an absurd concept. Throwing consciousness out of psychology, they view animals and humans as machines that react to external stimuli.

While I.P. Pavlov applied the method of objective study of higher nervous activity, open to them, for a natural-science substantiation of the origin and activity of consciousness as a function of the brain, cybernetics, after behaviourists, rejected consciousness - “one of the correlating elements” - because all desire can not be attributed to the car.

The famous French physicist Louis de Broglie soberly concludes: “Since it is impossible to attribute to these machines a consciousness similar to ours, the activity of computers, no matter how perfect they are, it cannot be identified with the activity of our thinking. Cybernetics cannot be expected to give us the key to the totality of biological phenomena. ”

And other bourgeois scientists, even seduced by the prospects of cybernetics, express doubt about the comprehensive meaning of this pseudoscience. Early last year, a session of the Indian Institute of Science in Bengaluru specifically discussed the issue of cybernetics. To the credit of Indian scientists, it should be noted that at this session there were also sober voices of scientists (Govendaswami, Chandi), who criticized the pseudo-scientific claims of cyberneticists.

An irreconcilable position in relation to pseudoscientific cybernetics is occupied by Marxist scholars. The April issue of the theoretical body of French Marxists La Panse for the current year (No. 47) contains an article by Andre Lantin, exposing cybernetic mystifications. The author of the article outlines the main lines of scientific criticism of cybernetic fabrications.

Noting correctly the positive technical and scientific importance of developing a new type of machine based on electronics, Lantin explains that “outside the field of technology, cybernetics is just a huge hoax,” based on lightweight, unscientific analogies. According to Lanthen, cybernetics is in vain trying to transfer the forms of motion peculiar to one type of matter to qualitatively different forms of matter, where other, higher laws operate.

From this point of view, Lanthen reveals the inconsistency of the antiscientific mechanistic constructions of cyberneticists who are trying to "outperform" the scientific physiology developed by I. P. Pavlov. Cybernetics, according to Lanthen, is "an instrument of the Cold War against Pavlov." The La Panse magazine of advanced scientific thought warns against cybernetic hoaxes and encourages French scientists from various disciplines to take part in the comprehensive criticism of this pseudoscience promoted by American imperialism, trying to penetrate the most diverse branches of knowledge.

Cybernetics strive to ascribe universal significance to the principle of operation of computers, they extend it not only to living organisms, but also to all of society.

“One of the lessons of this book,” Wiener writes, “is that every organism is preserved in its activities as a whole due to the fact that it has the means of acquiring, using, storing and transmitting information. In society ... these are the means: print, radio, telephone, telegraph, post office, theater, cinema, schools and church ”(N. Wiener“ Cybernetics or control and communication in the animal and in the car ”- Wiener Norbert“ Cybernetics or Control and communication in the animal and the machine "(1949).

Wiener's judgments about social phenomena are unusually primitive. He promotes disbelief in the possibility of knowing them and the accuracy of the data that the social sciences have: “In the social sciences, we cannot be sure that a large part of the phenomena we observe is not our own fabrication ... These sciences can never provide us with reliable, proven information ... One should not place exaggerated expectations on the possibilities of these sciences. ”

There is no need to dispute this assertion with respect to the social sciences in capitalist countries, where the truly subjective fabrications of the leaders of these sciences serve as a criterion of truth. We will not object also to the fact that the social sciences in the capitalist countries cannot provide reliable, verified information. It is useless to expect this from the sciences, whose main task is to hide the truth, to obscure the glaring contradictions of capitalism, to poison the toiling masses with the poison of lies and deception .

But cybernetics objectively oppose any social science. Wiener denies the objective nature of the laws of social development that are independent of the will and consciousness of people. The "founder" of cybernetics expresses disbelief in the social sciences and relies on the activities of computers of the latest designs, which allegedly are destined to make significant adjustments to public life.

Wiener assures that society will have to go through a new revolution, on which he places great hopes.

“The current industrial revolution,” he says, “leads to the devaluation of the human brain, at least in its simplest and more routine functions ... A qualified scientist and a qualified administrator can survive this industrial revolution. But as soon as it is completed, an ordinary person with average abilities or with abilities below the average will have nothing to sell for which it would be worth paying for something. ”

Such is the grim prospect that cybernetics presents to the workers, who are included in the category of people of "average abilities". There will remain computers of a perfect technical design, “giant brains”, which will control all other machines thanks to circular processes like feedback. The need for workers will disappear, because the regulation of the activities of the computers themselves will be taken by qualified administrators and scientists, the very “technically qualified intelligentsia” that technocrats predicted domination in future society.

Cybernetics do not think about where the whole mass of workers will go "with average abilities or with abilities below average." If they have nothing to pay for, then who will buy what industry and agriculture, driven by mechanical brains, will produce?

Wiener obviously didn’t realize that by drawing a similar perspective, he was cutting off the branch on the tree of life, on which capitalism still holds, because it is impossible to destroy the working class without destroying capitalism.

But not only workers will, in the opinion of cybernetics, be forced out by computers. This fate even threatens ... diplomats. Saddened in the diplomatic arena, Rear Head Admiral Joy, speaking at Harvard University, said: “It’s probably not a fantasy to predict that the future development of mechanical brains can lead to a mechanism that will facilitate the analysis of problems in international relations. ”

In the presentation of Rear Admiral Joey, in future international conferences and diplomatic negotiations from the United States will take part at a round table instead of living machine representatives. Joy has more hopes for mechanical brains than for the brains of current American diplomats. Although this is only a fantasy, and, moreover, quite unflattering for Joey’s colleagues on the diplomatic front, it still testifies to the disbelief of American politicians and ideologists in the productive activities of the human brain. Otherwise, they would not have agreed to such unprecedented stupidity.

But this nonsense is quite natural. It is a logical conclusion from the “theoretical” foresight of the “founder” of cybernetics, who saw the essence of the coming industrial revolution in replacing workers with robots equipped with mechanical brains.

Fortunately for humanity, this danger does not threaten him. Cybernetics is one of those pseudoscience that are generated by modern imperialism and doomed to death even before the death of imperialism.

The theory of cybernetics, which is trying to extend the principles of operation of computers of the newest design to the most diverse natural and social phenomena without taking into account their qualitative originality, is a mechanism that turns into idealism. It is a barren flower on the tree of knowledge, resulting from one-sided and excessive swelling of one of the features of knowledge.

One should not turn a blind eye to those deeply reactionary, misanthropic conclusions that cybernetics make when trying to solve social problems.

Frightened by the labor movement, the imperialists dream of a situation where no one will threaten their domination. Robots, only robots suit them; let all the rest of humanity perish, so long as they remain and the machines serving them. The cybernetic science bullshit reflects this fear of the working masses .

The author of the article already cited by us, Edmund Berkeley, writes: “It is doubtful that robots themselves were dangerous to humans. But when people hostile to society will be able to control robots, the danger to society will be great ... ”People consider Berkeley to be dangerous for society, not his imperialist masters, but the communists and the workers who go along with them, who can also master the technology of controlling self-regulating machines as they took possession of it in the Soviet Union.

Meanwhile, computers, or "giant brains," are closely associated with at least two kinds of weapons - with atomic explosions and guided projectiles. In this, according to Berkeley, the danger lurks, and therefore "it would be prudent if in the US all activity in this area was under the control of the Department of Defense."

This is what god cybernetics serves! All her undoubted practical achievements in the design of computers along with deeply reactionary theories are carried to the altar of war. In this regard, cybernetics are very active.

The imperialists are powerless to resolve the contradictions that are tearing apart the capitalist world. They are unable to prevent the economic crisis that is inexorably approaching them. They cannot get rid of the fear that inspires them in the victorious development of the Soviet Union and the countries of people's democracy. Their attempts to break the growing national liberation movement in the colonial and dependent countries are unsuccessful. In the wild horror plunges their growth of revolutionary consciousness and resistance of the working class and the powerful mass movement of progressive humanity in the struggle for peace.

They are looking for salvation not only in the frantic arms race, but also in ideological weapons . In desperation, they resort to pseudoscience, which give them at least a shadow of hope for the extension of existence.

The production process is carried out without workers, by machines alone, controlled by a giant brain of a computer! No strikes, no strikes, much less revolutionary uprisings! Machines instead of brains, cars without people! What a tempting prospect for capitalism!

The great founder of Marxism ingeniously foresaw the possibility of such a degradation of the thinking of learned servants of the ruling classes, generated by the antagonism between the productive forces and the production relations of capitalist society.

“Even the pure light of science cannot ... shine otherwise than against the dark background of ignorance. The result of all our discoveries and all our progress is obviously that material forces are endowed with the spiritual life, and human life becomes dull to the degree of material strength ”(K. Marx. Works. Vol. XI, Part 1, pp. 5-6) .

The panicked fear of the ideologists of imperialism in front of the active creative activity of human thinking, before a man who is conscious of his role and place in society, forces them to invent misanthropic false theories like cybernetics.

Charged lackeys of imperialism, driven by their masters to supply the latest technical inventions to serve the mass extermination of people and the destruction of the greatest achievements of the material and spiritual culture of humanity, are driven into such a hopeless deadlock.


[1] Highlights in the text - the editorial "Working Path".
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