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A Breakdown of Ideologies

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Post 12 Dec 2008, 03:24
This is a thread I wish to have a definition of what Trotskyism, Stalinism, Titoism, Maoism, etc...

This thread will be replaced with a locked topic once the "approved upon" definitions have been achieved.

Please contribute if you have knowledge to do so.

thank you

Post 12 Dec 2008, 05:14
Stalin basically said that his and his government's policies were a continuation of the principles and theory of Marx, Lenin and Engles. Two major policies of the Stalin government were collectivisation and socialism in one country.

Mr. Stalin saw it as necessary for collectivisation to happen so as to restrict and and get rid of the rich land owners. Collectivization was thus a means of abolishing classes in the bush and bringing about socialism in the workplace.

Socialism in One Country
The Stalin government though that it needed to solve the problems with in the Soviet Union before campaigning for socialism around the world military and political wise. Thus, socialism in one country was opposite to Leon Trotsky's view of spreading the revolution regardless of the problems with in the Soviet Union.

Economic policies
The Stalin government established national market boards to implement the targets of the five years plans. The policies were that the USSR would have a centrally planned economy with five year plans. The market boards would dictate to the enterprises the type of things that they would produce and how much they would be sold to the national market boards. The boards would then allocate the amount of commodities to distributing enterprises. As under the directions of the Manifesto of the Communist Party, the banks and other financial institutions were state owned thus centralising credit.

The Stalin government also had a policy of industrialisation and modernisation.

Generally speaking, Stalinists are supporters of Stalin and his government between 1924 to 1953 (or 56 if you count the denouncement of Stalin speech).
Stalin supporters don't really support the Soviet governments after 1953 (or 1956).
Post 12 Dec 2008, 23:35
Utopian Socialism: Utopian Socialists, such as Robert Owen, Charles Fourier, and Comte Saint-Simon, believe in a “nowheresville,” as described by Thimas More. In this imaginary place there is no social conflicts and the entire human populations lives without antagonisms and conflicts. Social needs would be met, people would live fraternally, there would be a great deal of equality, people would be free and would have a voice. To them, "Socialism is the expression of absolute truth, reason and justice, and has only to be discovered to conquer all the world by virtue of its own power" (Engels Socialism: Utopian and Scientific). Utopian Socialists are a hinderence to any real worker's movement because they have "attempted to evolve out of the human brain" (Engels Socialism: Utopian and Scientific). They want a perfect society simply by rejecting modern society. Without having a plan to get to this new society they are doomed to fail. Most Utopian Socialists existed within the first quarter of the 19th Century; however, more modern examples are Pol Pot and John Lennon.

Scientific Socialism: Is in direct contrast to Utopian Socialism. As opposed to Utopian Socialism "the final causes of all social changes and political revolutions are to be sought, not in men's brains, not in men's better insights into eternal truth and justice, but in changes in the modes of production and exchange. They are to be sought, not in the philosophy, but in the economics of each particular epoch" (Engels Socialism: Utopian and Scientific). Scientifc Socialists accept the materialists concept of history and dialectical materialism. Scientifc Socialists accept the realities of society and change society based on those realities as opposed to the rejection of those realities. Marx and Engels are viewed as the first Scientifc Socialists.

Socialism: Utopian and Scientific by Frederick Engels.
Part III section 3 of the Manifesto of the Community Party, Critical-Utopian Socialism and Communism by Marx/Engels
Utopian Socialism on Marxist Internet Archive
Post 13 Dec 2008, 15:27

To quote Stalin, Leninism is Marxism in the era of imperialism. While there are other analyses for imperialism by other Marxists such as Kautsky(which Lenin severely criticized), and Rosa Luxemburg, Lenin's is the most widely used. The basic characteristics of imperialism he outlined were:

Imperialism: The Highest Stage Of Capitalism wrote:
(1) the concentration of production and capital has developed to such a high stage that it has created monopolies which play a decisive role in economic life; (2) the merging of bank capital with industrial capital, and the creation, on the basis of this “finance capital”, of a financial oligarchy; (3) the export of capital as distinguished from the export of commodities acquires exceptional importance; (4) the formation of international monopolist capitalist associations which share the world among themselves, and (5) the territorial division of the whole world among the biggest capitalist powers is completed.

Lenin also made contribution with regards to party organization & tactics. He was an advocate of vanguardism: that the party should consist of dedicated & disciplined revolutionary activists that would lead the masses in the struggle against the reactionary system. He advocated that the vanguard party be organized based on democratic centralism. It is democratic in the sense that lower party organs would elect & recall higher party organs and members of the party would freely debate and vote on decisions whenever possible. It was centralist in that lower organs had to follow orders from higher organs and when the majority votes on a decision everyone must follow through.

Important Works:
What Is To Be Done?
Imperialism: The Highest Stage Of Capitalism
Marxism and Insurrection
The State and Revolution
Left-Wing Communism: An Infantile Disorder


Leninism developed by the theories of Leon Trotsky. Also called Bolshevik-Leninism. Trotsky's most well known theory is the Permanent Revolution, although apparently many of both it's supporters and critics don't fully understand it. Since the Russian bourgeoisie was incapable of performing their revolutionary tasks in Tzarist russia, it would be up the workers to overthrow tzarism and establish a dictatorship of the proletariat that would lead the peasantry and and perform the tasks of the bourgeois-democratic revolution. The revolution is thus permanent since Russia would not have to go through a second revolution to reach socialism. The theory goes against Stalin's "socialism in one country" since it states that the only way a workers' state could survive and develop socialism in such a backward country as Russia was with the help of socialist revolutions in developed capitalist countries.

Trotsky also severely criticized Stalin and the leadership of the USSR after 1923. He claimed that the Soviet Union had become a "degenerated workers' state" since the working class had been politically dispossessed by a bureaucratic degeneration. He believed that a political revolution was necessary to bring back workers' democracy or else the degeneration would lead to the restoration of capitalism.

Important works:
The World Revolution by CLR James
The Permanent Revolution and Results & Prospects
The Revolution Betrayed
History of The Russian Revolution
The Transitional Programme


Marxism-Leninism developed by Mao Tse-tung. Also called "Mao Tse-tung Thought". As a successful military leader who helped defeat the Japanese Imperialists during WWII and defeated the imperialist-backed Kuomingtang, Mao's works on insurgent and guerilla tactics have inspired revolutionaries all over the world. Mao also made contributions in dialectical materialism and class struggle, claiming that revolutionary struggle needs to continue after the revolution to prevent capitalist restoration and that the new bourgeoisie can even develop within the party & government apparatus. Other tenets of Maoism include New Democracy, in which the tasks of the bourgeois-democratic revolution in backward countries are carried out by the proletariat with the alliance of other revolutionary classes, the Mass Line, a political method based on the principle of "From the masses, to the masses", anti-revisionism, and opposition towards post-Stalinist leaders in the USSR.

Important Works:
Quotations From Chairman Mao Tse-tung(aka The Little Red Book)
On Practice
On Contradiction
On Protracted War
On Khrushchov's Phoney Communism and it's historical lessons for the world
A Critique of Soviet Economics
Last edited by Fallen Raptor on 18 Dec 2008, 15:12, edited 1 time in total.
Post 15 Dec 2008, 18:40
Christian Communism - Christian communism is not an independent self-motivated goal to which Christianity might strive. Rather, it is an inheritance bred of that spirit of love by which the Church has breathed from the first. Moreover, Christian communism is totally voluntary. No one says, "Give us what is yours, it belongs to us," rather, Christians themselves sacrificed so that "none of them considered any of their possessions to be their own." ... nity.shtml

Subnote: I gave it a try, and sorry, the site seems teeming with propaganda.
Post 16 Dec 2008, 16:01
Good definitions there Fallen Raptor. Very well balanced. You and RR have set the standard in this thread.

Subnote: I gave it a try, and sorry, the site seems teeming with propaganda.

You made a decent start, but your definition needs more of an explanation of what Christian Communist is as well as a statement of principles like "No one says, "Give us what is yours, it belongs to us," rather, Christians themselves sacrificed so that "none of them considered any of their possessions to be their own.". Plus it would be good for you to identify who influenced this Ideology (and I mean a person, not God/Jesus). And more sources would be good too. I think I have a couple I can PM you if you like.

I'm going to try putting some defs up when I get time to find decent sources.
Post 16 Dec 2008, 20:26
I'm going to try putting some defs up when I get time to find decent sources.


Please use your own wording for this as I wish this to be "ours" rather than some article pasted from another site.

Thanks for the help so far..
Post 16 Dec 2008, 22:36
Thanks, Fellow Comrade.


Marxism based on the ideas of Rosa Luxemburg, who was, according to Marx's biographer Franz Mehring, "the finest brain amongst the scientific successors of Marx and Engels". Rosa Luxemburg defended revolutionary Marxism against revisionists and opportunists like Eduard Bernstein and Karl Kautsky(respectively), stood against imperialism & the world war, and debated with Lenin on the question of the national self-determination and on party organization & tactics. She criticized reformists for rejecting the need for revolution while still supporting the struggle for social reforms, and she was critical of the Bolsheviks in power while still being a staunch supporter of them and their revolution. Based on the experiences of the Belgian workers' struggle for democratic reforms, she advocated the use of mass strikes to achieve revolutionary goals. Rosa also made some of the most original contributions to political economy since Marx in her book, The Accumulation of Capital, which explains how the expansion of capitalism into non-capitalist countries has mitigated the tendency towards overproduction crises.

Important Works:
Reform or Revolution
Organizational Questions of the Russian Social Democracy
The Mass Strike
Accumulation of Capital
The Russian Revolution


A school of anarchist thought that focuses on radical trade-unions as the vehicles for revolution. Anarcho-syndicalism is more of a means to reach an end, so anarcho-syndicalists may also be advocates of anarcho-collectivism, anarcho-communism, and other types of anarchist systems. The basic principles of anarcho-syndicalism include workers' solidarity, direct action, and workers' self-management.

Important Works:
Anarcho-syndicalism by Rudolf Rocker
The Relevance of Anarcho-syndicalism by Noam Chomsky
Post 12 Feb 2009, 05:52
Liberation Theology:

A school of Christian theology which incorporates Marxist analysis. Developed by Catholic priest Gustavo Gutiérrez, it is primarily adhered to by Catholics in South America. Liberation Theologians emphasise the importance of working to liberate the world from poverty and oppression, citing numerous biblical passages to support their views. Poverty and oppression are viewed to be ultimately rooted in sin with Capitalism recognised as a primary mechanism for both. Capitalism is therefore considered to be an economic system needing replacement before liberation from sin can be achieved. Marxism is adopted as a tool for analysis of society, however, most Liberation theologians do not agree with the traditional Marxist analysis of religion.

Important works:
Post 19 Aug 2009, 18:51
Republican Socialism

A school of thought found primarily in Ireland (although followings exist among most Celtic populations), Republican Socialism combines the traditional anti-colonial, national sovereignty movement of Ireland with Socialist and typically Marxist theory, seeking to place the Irish "National Question" in a class context. The best known founder of Republican Socialism was Scottish-Irish Marxist revolutionary James Connolly, who was executed following the "Easter Rising" in 1916.

Today a spectrum of views are represented under the Republican Socialist umbrella from moderate non-Marxists through to anti-revisionist Marxist-Leninists, and opinions on the use of violence vary from pacifists through to small-group terrorists. Republican Socialism remains one of the dominant political philosophies in the North of Ireland, and the largest party which identifies itself as such is Sinn Fein.

Important Works:
Socialism and Nationalism by James Connolly
Socialism and Irish Nationalism by James Connolly
Post 18 Jan 2010, 06:06

A very important note: Fascism is not, at it's core, racist. It cannot function as an ideology if it was. You cannot transfer a political philosophy which says "X race is superior," without excluding its influence. As an ideology it attaches itself to any nation, any collective nationality in order to propagate. It is after it has attached itself that it evolves into whatever it wishes to become. The argument that it naturally pushes towards a racist or xenophobic society is irrelevant. For neutrality's sake, I do not wish to imply that it does.

Way of Thinking
: Society is in constant conflict. Either with itself or with other societies as social Darwinism weeds out the weak and supports the strong.

The Fascist disdains an “easy" life...

Emphasis on the purity of a single culture or society. It is only through purity in every aspect of life that the utopia can be achieved. Think of society as a human body, if everything within that body is in peak condition, devoid of impurities, receiving the best food ect it can produce the greatest results. In order to reach this we must promote conflict within ourselves.

Anti-Intellectualism, not in a negative sense though. The idea is that you are capable of inhuman feats of strength if you don’t think about certain things. For instance, if you see a car roll down a hill about to crush a child, you don’t stop for a moment and think about the improbability of you being able to stop the car. You rush instantly to the scene and push yourself to beyond the limits which were possible in order to save the child. Apply this to a state wide system.

Basic Assumption of Human Nature

Human beings aren't necessarily blank slates. Some humans are strong and others are weak. It is through conflict that the strong survive and the weak suffer. As it should be.

I believe that if a people wish to live they should develop a will to power, otherwise they vegetate, live miserably and become prey to a stronger people, in whom this will to power is developed to a higher degree. (Speech to the Senate, May 28, 1926).

So society should exist to “filter” out those who are impure in order to help the pure propagate and expand itself. “Good” and “bad” people don’t really exist, as “good” and “bad” is really only generated from racial, cultural, intellectual, moral inferiority. The theory doesn’t emphasize purging, but it discourages the impure from expanding its influence. All people act motivated by glory and heroism (for its nation) rather than economic motives (as claimed by Communists or Classical Liberals).

Fascism is therefore opposed to all individualistic abstractions based on eighteenth century materialism; and it is opposed to all Jacobinistic utopias and innovations.

Fascism is therefore opposed to Socialism to which unity within the State (which amalgamates classes into a single economic and ethical reality) is unknown, and which sees in history nothing but the class struggle.

On the concept of motivation of heroism and national action:

That the vicissitudes of economic life - discoveries of raw materials, new technical processes, and scientific inventions - have their importance, no one denies; but that they suffice to explain human history to the exclusion of other factors is absurd. Fascism believes now and always in sanctity and heroism, that is to say in acts in which no economic motive - remote or immediate - is at work.

Driving Force

To engage in Social Darwinism in general. Those who are stronger triumph and those who are weaker fail. The victors are inherently superior and thus should be emphasized over all else, either because of their cultural traits, genetic traits, or other.


To reach a state of absolute purity. If society has reached this stage than anything is possible as humanity is capable of things beyond its own pre-conceived notions. “Class divisions,” in the Liberal sense are essentially insignificant. As all people who are pure have a devout attachment to the Nation which they originate. There would be no crime, poverty, or war (any more) since all negative aspects of society are generated from those who are inherently inferior and are prone to generating those negative aspects. Equality socially or economically isn’t significant either, as leaders are charged and widely known by the populace. Simply by knowing or seeing the man who emphasizes the purity of their own nation.

Since the nation is so grand the people's living conditions would be exemplary, so there is no social conflict (no pluralist culture? no conflict).

Economic Policies?

A mix between Capitalism and Socialism. But what they specifically advocate depends on which branch of fascism it is. In general, Corporatism, National Socialism, National Syndicalism. No hostility to small business owners but large corporations are generally under government control. It is an interesting mix between the two economic systems. Rejects the idea of Class Conflict (Communism) and ownership by the wealthy (Classical Liberal) in favor of a system of State Capitalism, or Corporatism where some very large companies are owned by the government for the collective good, but not all companies are managed this way (as in the transitionary stage in Communism).

Side Note:
There is some argument from Fascists in general that Nazism is only a strange offshoot of real Fascism. The principle claim being that their emphasis on racial purity and conflict with specific races in general, rather than a conflict against Communism and Classical Liberalism-which is what the ideology is founded on. As such these people generally emphasize the importance of Italian Fascism (which the Nazi party was inspired by) as a more pure form. The ideology is pretty difficult to get behind because of the amount of bias literature against it, more so even than Communist philosophy (probably due to their winning of WW2 and allowed proclamation of their ideals through the USSR and other states). Either way, those who are more learn-ed on the subject can feel free to correct me.

Source of Quotations: ... solini.htm

Edit: For clarification on the foreword.
Post 21 Jan 2010, 03:36
strasserism is based off of the ideas of Otto Strasser, and Gregor Strasser who believed that Hitler had betrayed the Socialist ideas of the Nazi party. Also the Strasser Brothers wanted to ally with the Soviet Union

Strasserism is a distinct strand of Nazism that, whilst holding on to previous Nazi ideals such as militant nationalism and anti-Semitism, added a strong critique of capitalism and framed this in the demand for a more "socialist-based" approach to economics, and also had ideas of class conflict, and wealth redistribution

important works:
Nationalsozialistische Briefe by Otto Strasser
Ministersessel oder Revolution by Otto Strasser
Post 21 Jan 2010, 06:53
Also the Strasser Brothers wanted to ally with the Soviet Union

What are you basing this off? The Strassers were virulent anti-communists, Otto even served in the freikorps against the short-lived bavarian soviet. I've heard they were a little more open to the Soviets but never wanted to be 'allies' of any kind.

and also had ideas of class conflict, and wealth redistribution

Any ideas of class conflict were absolutely submerged beneath racial conflict. This is true of wealth redistribution too which would have only favored poor whites, and considering the SA track record probably at the expense of non-whites.
Post 21 Jan 2010, 10:45
The Strassers were a little more honest in actually believing the propaganda they spread about the decadent rich Jews, but that's about as far as their 'class conflict' went.
Post 21 Jan 2010, 12:14
added a strong critique of capitalism

its da evol JEWS's fault!!!1

That's what it boils down to, seriously. They just had more intelligent and socialist-sounding words to convey it than the Hitlerites.
Post 03 May 2010, 22:55
I'm confused. Anyway, I thought I'd take a crack at this.


An ideology formulated by Daniel DeLeon in the 1900's. A combination of Syndicalism and Revolutionary Socialism that basically states that militant trade unions alongside a socialist party should be the vehicle for revolutionary change. Has its roots in Marxism and therefore advocates violent overthrow of the existing government. Differs from orthodox Marxism in that it believes that worker control of industry should come primarily from industrial unions and does not support the idea of a vanguard party or democratic centralism.

Social Democracy

A reformist ideology that serves as a via media between capitalism and socialism. Seeks to protect and promote private property while creating a strong welfare state with mild socialist reforms such as nationalization. Believes in protection of workers rights but stops short of granting workers control of the means of production. Differs both from the free market ideology sought by capitalism and the total public ownership of property and planned economy sought by socialism. Though it has more in common with liberal capitalism, social democrats are typically denoted and refer to themselves as "socialists" and run with "socialist" parties.

Left Communism
A catch all term for those communist currents that reject Leninism and claim to be closer to the marxist tradition. Ideologies vary but most reject the notion of a vanguard party, prefering worker self direction of the revolution. Most also reject democratic centralism as "undemocratic." Proponents include Bukharin, Luxembourg, and Pankhurst.
Post 03 May 2010, 22:58
Bullshit. Bukharin was part of the Right Opposition in the CPSU, he was definitely not to the left of Lenin.
Post 03 May 2010, 23:01
You're right, Mabool. My mistake. I probably confused him with Bakunin who wasn't even in the same time period.
Post 03 May 2010, 23:16
You probably want to add Pannekoek, Korsch and Gorter.
Post 03 May 2010, 23:19
Actually Bukharin was identified by Lenin as one of the Left-Wing Communists within the Bolshevik Party in Infantile Disorder. He notoriously shifted from the left of the party to the right.
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