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Mao's Evaluation of the Revolution of 1911 (1954)

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Post 15 Mar 2019, 19:23
Evaluation of the Revolution of 1911 [1]

(September 14, 1954)

  Use this opportunity to talk about the evaluation of the 1911 Revolution. A considerable number of friends told us that "the Revolution of 1911 is a bourgeois-democratic revolution" is not appropriate, and there is some emotional disappointment. However, in the history of social development, the Revolution of 1911 is indeed a democratic revolution of the bourgeois nature.
  In the history of mankind, there have been several major revolutions of different natures.
  For the first time, slave owners overthrew the primitive communist society and made human production and society a step forward. The primitive communist society at that time was not the communist society we are talking about now, but the primitive society composed of some clan tribes. They fight each other and catch the prisoners and kill them. The slave owner does not kill the prisoner, but takes the prisoner as a slave. Although he stabbed him with one eye or injured one of his hands, he still had to work. Is it good to kill people, or not to let him work well? Or slavery, slavery can accumulate wealth. The productivity of the primitive communist society is very low, and slavery is further advanced. Now when we talk about slavery, people think it is very bad. In fact, the birth of slavery was a great progress at the time.
  The second time, it was the feudal landlord who had lost the life of the slave owner. This revolution is probably in the Spring and Autumn Period and the Warring States Period in China. Historians are still arguing about this issue. Some people say that Western Zhou Dynasty is a feudal society. I think that today the Central People’s Government Committee can not draw conclusions on this issue. I personally believe that Guo Moruo [2] Vice Premier's proposition of feudalism in the Spring and Autumn Period and the Warring States Period. Guo Moruo used a lot of materials to prove that Confucius [3] became a saint because he was a revolutionary party and participated in rebellion everywhere. It is said that Confucius is in the Spring and Autumn Period and "the thief is afraid of the thief", which is what Mencius said [4] . In fact, when Confucius traveled around the country, where did he go when he rebelled, and wherever he wanted to revolution, he went there. Therefore, this person cannot be wiped out. It cannot simply be "falling down the Kongjiadian." In short, in the Spring and Autumn Period and the Warring States Period, fierce changes took place, and large class struggles and revolutionary struggles took place. From then on, land was allowed to be private and land was allowed to be rented. Probably in the Lu Xuan Gong era "first tax mu" [5]The first time I started collecting land rent. Lu Aigong also said "two, I am still not enough, how is it?" [6] , Che, that is one tenth. It can be seen that the land rent at that time was about 20%. This proves that the social system at that time has begun to change. It is no longer the implementation of the minefield system, but the use of land tax. In the past, it was "under the ordinary world, it is not the kingdom of the earth; the shore of the soil, it is not the king of the king" [7] , this time is private. Private ownership used to be a good thing. Some people have said that human history has been 500,000 years [8] , but among them, forty-nine thousand and five thousand years, they did not understand private ownership, and thus did not enter civil society.
  For the third time, it was the life of the bourgeois revolutionary feudal landlord class, that is, the life of the feudalism of democracy. In China, it is the Revolution of 1911.
  The 1911 Revolution led by Sun Yat-sen and his group was one of the bourgeois-democratic revolutions in human history. Before the Revolution of 1911, China had a reformist. There should also be an improvement in the improvement of the reformists. Reform Movement [9] At the time of oppression, why? It is because there is progressive, it is subject to hatred diehards. Sun Yat-sen has taken a big step forward than the reformist. He publicly called for the bourgeois-democratic revolution, overthrew the rule of the Qing Dynasty, ended China’s feudal monarchy for more than 2,000 years, established the Republic of China and the Provisional Revolutionary Government, and formulated a The Temporary Covenant Law [10] . After the Revolution of 1911, whoever wants to be an emperor again will not be able to do it. So we say that it has great historical significance. I myself have participated in this democratic revolution, and I became a warrior and ate seven or two [11] . At that time , Mr. Cheng Qian [12] participated. He is a teacher. Although he is not my top boss, his status is higher than mine.
  The Revolution of 1911 did not succeed and failed. Why did it fail? It is because Sun Yat-sen’s leadership group made mistakes and had shortcomings. In this regard, Sun Yat-sen has had self-criticism, and the declaration adopted by the Kuomintang's first national congress has said that it was wrong to compromise Yuan Shikai at that time [13] . The Kuomintang has criticized it at the first congress. Can we not criticize now?
  Are all the people here present a saint? To be a saint, there are many saints; to say that it is not a saint, I see saints too. Just one no. People always have shortcomings, always make mistakes, just don't miss too much. For example, when the chairman said that ten sentences were wrong six sentences and wrong sixty percent, then his chairman would not be. It’s good to say a word, there is no such thing. Write an article, always change it. If it is good, why change it? When you write an article, you often have to make a lot of mistakes. I have been to Shanghai in the past. The place in Shanghai is very complicated. I often go the wrong way and always make mistakes. Anyone who has a mistake, I hope to get criticism and correction from friends in time. A person always has many shortcomings. If you feel that you have no shortcomings, "the tiger's butt can't touch it", then it's not good. To be "the speaker is not guilty, the person is suffocating." We rely on honesty to eat, not to eat on the shelf. Of course, in the face of imperialism, in front of Attlee [14] and others, it is still possible to "place the shelf", but it is not good to eat on the shelf. If the leader of the Communist Party can't say it, the leaders of the democratic parties and people's organizations can't say anything, then it's not good. For Confucius, since Dong Zhongshu [15] , he has said that he is not a "non-holy law, the chaos of the chaos" [16] . We can't do this, we have to seek truth from facts. We must analyze everything; good, yes; bad, criticize.
  At the 30th meeting of the Central People's Government Committee, I mentioned that the second article of the conclusion of the History of the Communist Party was criticized by Marx and Engels. Engels has a wrong principle and should be abandoned and replaced with new principles. For example, Engels advocated the form of a parliamentary republic after the victory of the proletarian revolution, but according to the experience of the Russian October Revolution, Lenin believed that the form of the Soviet Republic was better. It can be seen that Engels’s view is wrong. In addition, both Marx and Engels once said that the British revolution can adopt a peaceful revolution and that the British revolution will come soon. Marx and Engels all want the revolution to win quickly, but in fact the revolution always has no victory, and there is no way. The old saying goes, "People are not sages, you can't have it." I want to change this sentence. People, including sages, have always had it, and it is better to change it. I also said at the last meeting of the Central People's Government Committee that we should not create idols, that is, we should not say who can't criticize them, but we can say that we can criticize them, but we must be correct and we must analyze them.
  The above is a point of opinion that I have contributed to you. Is it appropriate? Please consider it.
  According to the speech record kept by the Central Archives, it was printed.

  [1] This is the speech of Mao Zedong after the adoption of the draft constitution of the People's Republic of China at the provisional meeting of the Central People's Government Committee.
  [2] Guo Moruo (1892 - 1978), Leshan, Sichuan. At that time, he served as deputy prime minister of the government and director of the Cultural Education Committee.
  [3] Confucius, Confucius (5501 BC - 479 BC), Mingqiu, Zizhong Ni, 陬邑 (now Shandong Qufu). The late spring and autumn period thinkers, politicians, educators, founders of Confucianism.
  [4] See "The Mencius Teng Wengong". The original text is: "Confucius into the Spring and Autumn and the chaotic thief fear."
  [5] See "Spring and Autumn Lu Xuangong fifteen years." Lu Xuangong fifteen years, that is, in 1949 BC.
  [6] See "The Analects of Confucius."
  [7] See "The Book of Songs, Xiaoya·Beishan".
  [8] Archaeological discoveries to date have proven that human history has been at least two million years old.
  [9] The Reform Movement of 1898, also known as the Reform Movement of 1898, refers to the reform movement in 1880 (the year of the 18th year). At that time, China faced a serious crisis divided by the imperialist powers. Kang Youwei, Liang Qichao, and Tan Wei, the same person, with the support of Emperor Guangxu of the Qing Dynasty, attempted to reform the monarchy constitution of the landlord class and the bourgeoisie in China through the top-down reform of the monarchy, and to develop national capitalism to save The nation is in danger. However, this movement lacked the foundation of the masses of the people and was resolutely opposed by the die-hards headed by the Empress Dowager Cixi. After more than three months of reform, the Empress Dowager Cixi launched a coup, confined the Emperor Guangxu, and killed the same six of Tan Wei. The reform was defeated.
  [10] Refers to the Law of the Republic of China on Temporary Law, see Note on page 330 of this volume [3].
  [11] refers to the silver dollar that was universal at the time.
  [12] Cheng Qian, joined the League in his early years. When the Revolution of 1911 broke out, he served as the commander of the Wuchang Guishan artillery position, and later served as the chief of staff of the Xiangjun government and the director of the Hunan Military Department. After the founding of the People’s Republic of China, he served as a member of the Central People
  [13] The "Declaration of the First National Congress of the Chinese Kuomintang" said: "The revolution is successful, but the actual performance of the revolutionary government is only national emancipation. Once upon a time, it has been forced by the situation, and it has to be counter-revolutionary. The authoritarian class compromised. Such compromises were indirectly blended with imperialism and became the root of the first failure of the revolution. At that time, the party represented the counter-revolutionary class, Yuan Shikai."
  [14] Attlee ( 1883 - 1957, former British prime minister. At that time, he was the leader of the British Labor Party.
  [15] Dong Zhongshu (169 BC - former 104), Guangchuan (now Hebei Zaoqiang Northeast). The Western Han thinker is the main representative of the Confucius School in the Western Han Dynasty. He proposed "destroying a hundred houses and honoring Confucianism alone" and adopted it for Emperor Wu of the Han Dynasty to establish the orthodox position of Confucianism.
  [16] See "Han Jin Daily Biography".
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