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Tan Naizhang: Mao Zedong and Marx's Capital

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Tan Naizhang: Mao Zedong and Marx's Capital
Time: 2012-09-12 20:01:12 Source: Author: Tan Naizhang

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Summary: The author has carefully studied this important topic on the basis of reviewing and possessing materials. The article has three parts: First, Mao Zedong read the basic situation of "Capital", this part provides some valuable materials; Second, Mao Zedong's "Capital" mainly studies materialist dialectics, systematically and comprehensively discusses the contradiction of dialectics, that is, materialist dialectics The most fundamental law and its theoretical system are the major developments of Marx's materialist dialectics. Third, Mao Zedong's reading of Capital is to design and formulate the theory, line and policy of the Chinese revolution, and to guide the Chinese revolution from victory to victory.

I. The basic situation of

Mao Zedong's reading of Capital. After Mao Zedong's death, he was rumored at home and abroad that he had not read Capital. On the contrary, from the collection of the Central Archives Mao Zedong, he often reads and studies Capital.
So why does Mao Zedong often read and study Capital? As Lenin pointed out, "The main content of Marxism is Marx's economic theory." [1] "Capital" is an epoch-making major scientific work that Marx spent his entire life writing for forty years. This work exposes the relationship between the proletariat and the bourgeoisie of the capitalist society and its development trend, and demonstrates the objective law of the inevitable extinction of capitalism and the inevitable victory of socialism; the historical mission of the proletariat is to eliminate capitalism. To achieve socialism and communism, the only way is only the proletarian revolution and the dictatorship of the proletariat. After the publication of the first volume of Marx's Capital, Engels wrote a book review for this volume. He pointed out that "Since there are capitalists and workers on the earth, no book is as important to workers as the book in front of us. The relationship between capital and labor is the rotation of all social systems in our modern society. The axis, this relationship was first scientifically explained here, and this explanation is thorough and incisive, only one German can do it." [2] In 1886, Engels in the English version The Preface also states that “Capital” is often referred to as the 'biblical class' on the mainland. Anyone familiar with the workers' movement will not deny that the conclusions of this book are increasingly becoming the basic principles of the great workers' movement. [3]

As early as the Yan'an period, Mao Zedong called on the Communists to study Marx's Capital. He pointed out, "Or someone wants to say: "Capital" is not very long, then what should I do? This is easy to do, and it will be read." [4] Under the call of Mao Zedong, there were central authorities at that time. For example, the Marxist Institute has established a group to study Capital.

Judging from the collection of Mao Zedong in the Central Archives, the "Capital" read by Mao Zedong is a three-volume version of Guo Dali and Wang Yanan, and Shanghai Reading Life Publishing House. Judging from the comments, especially the bar, Mao Zedong read three volumes, and the focus is on the first volume. The first volume discusses the production process of capital, reveals the origin, essence and secret of surplus value, and constitutes the core and foundation of Capital, and its structure is strict. Marx was modified when he was alive. On July 31, 1865, Marx wrote to Engels: "No matter what shortcomings in my writings, they have a strength, that is, they are an artistic whole; but to achieve this, only use me. "[5] Later, Engels also said that "Capital" "The first volume is a fairly complete book, and has been regarded as an independent work for two decades" [6] "Capital" The second volume is about the process of capital circulation; the third volume is about the general process of capitalist production. These two volumes are unfinished drafts. After the death of Marx, Engels compiled and published it.

From the collection of Mao Zedong's books in the Central Archives, Mao Zedong not only repeatedly read the two sets of Capital, translated by Guo Dali and Wang Yanan, but also read the large capital "Capital" published by the People's Publishing House in the 1960s. Book), also used red and blue pencils to draw bars, circles, points and other symbols; Mao Zedong also read the English version of Capital in 1954.

When Wang Xuewen, an economist in China's old generation, listened to Zhang Wentian in Yan'an, Mao Zedong read Guo Moruo's translation of Marx's "Critique of Political Economy" before reading Guo Dali and Wang Yanan's three volumes of "Capitalism", Wang Shenming (Wang Sihua The first volume of the book "Capital" translated by Hou Waiyu, the first volume of the book "Capital" by Yushu and Ma Ming, and the first volume of "Capital" by Mi Ming and Yu. It is a pity that these works and other important works of Marx, Engels, Lenin and Stalin were lost in the war years.

From the point of view of comments, Mao Zedong read or focused on "Capital" four times: 1938, 1954, 1967, 1973. Here, it is necessary to point out that according to Mao Zedong’s secretary, Mao Zedong often read Capital Theory to find some theoretical views or some issues to be studied and discussed. This is also his habit. Every time Mao Zedong went out to convene an important meeting or investigation and study, he had to bring a lot of books. Of course, first of all, important works of Marx, Engels, Lenin, and Stalin, especially the "Capital". This situation shows that Mao Zedong also attached great importance to reading Capital on his way out.

Mao Zedong read "Capital", and like Lenin, there are not many endorsements; however, there is a difference. Mao Zedong draws more symbols, including dozens of types such as circles, points, curves, bars, parallel bars, and triangles. Symbols are also marked in the comments at the bottom of some pages. These symbols represent theoretical points, thinking about problems, research methods, and solving practical problems. Judging from the commas of some pages, which are syllables, Mao Zedong is reading in a recitation, as if to make people hear the sound of reading.

Mao Zedong read Capital, although there are not many comments, but the meaning is far-reaching. For example, he commented on the "Preface" (1867): "When the Communist Manifesto was written in 1847, 21 years." How to understand the "21 years" in this annotation? Here, Mao Zedong associates with the "Three Prefaces" of Engels' Anti-Duhring: "Our worldview, which first came out in Marx's 'Poverty of Philosophy' and in the 'Communist Manifesto', passed The latent period of more than 20 years, and the emergence of 'capital theory', has grown at an increasing rate and has expanded its influence on a growing number of people. Now it has gone beyond Europe, with proletarians on all sides, and he has a fearless scientific theory. In those countries of the family, it has attracted attention and gained support." [7] The 21 years in Mao Zedong's endorsement is Engels's "hidden period of more than 20 years" in this discussion. This period coincided with the beginning of the Communist Manifesto and the period when Capital was born. Mao Zedong draws a horizontal bar symbol under these statements. Mao Zedong’s endorsement is not only that he remembered Engels’s remarks in Anti-Duhring, but also the Preface written by Engels in 1890 for the German version of the Communist Manifesto. This "Preface" said that the "Communist Manifesto" "has its own experience. When it appeared, it was warmly welcomed by the scientific socialist vanguards who were still few at the time", and said that "the responders are still very few." [8] In this way, Mao Zedong’s commentary is a two-part discussion of Engels. These two paragraphs say that the "Communist Manifesto" came out, and the warm welcome "the number is still small" and "there are few Liao Liu". 21 years later, Marx's "Capital" was born. This great work comprehensively and systematically discusses the theoretical basis and basic theory of Marxism. The influence of the "Communist Manifesto" is rapidly "increasingly expanded" and "far beyond the scope of Europe" . At the same time, Mao Zedong wrote this commentary and also thought of Lenin in "What is the "Friends of the People" and how they attack social democrats? A paragraph of this work: "Now, since the advent of "Capital", the materialist view of history is no longer a hypothesis but a scientific proof of principle." [9] Mao Zedong attaches great importance to the scientific hypothesis of logic, he is Yan'an said, "The necessity of hypothesis" [10] Mao Zedong thinks of Lenin's remarks, saying that Marx and Engels wrote the "Communist Manifesto", the materialist view of history or the hypothesis; 21 years later, "Capital" came out The materialist view of history has been demonstrated by Marx as a scientific principle. Therefore, Lenin pointed out in his important philosophical work "Materialism and Empirical Criticism"

Mao Zedong's reading of Capital is a combination of reading and focusing. Before reading through, he carefully and deeply read the "Preface" and "Second Edition" and "French Preface and Proverbs" written by Marx during his lifetime, because this is the outline of Capital and more The symbol, especially the "Second Edition". As mentioned above, the three volumes of "Capital", the first volume is the focus of Mao Zedong's reading; and in the major volumes, there are also his reading priorities, such as Engels said, "Capital" third volume, "great", " It is remarkable and outstanding. It is indeed an unheard of change in the old economics. It is only because of this that our theory has an indestructible foundation that we can triumphantly launch on all fronts. As soon as the book comes out, the mediocrity of the party will once again be hit by a long time that will not be forgotten." He also said, "If thunder and lightning," "This is a dazzling book, even more than the first volume in academics." [12] This volume "analysis of land rent is theoretically extremely complete." [13] Mao Zedong also read this part as the focus, and also marked some symbols.

Second, Mao Zedong's "Capital" is mainly to study materialist dialectics.

Mao Zedong's "Capital" is mainly to study the materialist dialectics; and materialist dialectics is the theoretical basis of Marxism. Mao Zedong pointed out in the "Contradictory Theory" that "the contradictory movement of the development of things from beginning to end, Lenin pointed out that Marx made such an analysis in the "Capital" model. This is the method that must be applied to study the development of any thing. Lenin himself It is also applied correctly and is carried out in all his works." Therefore, Mao Zedong called on "Chinese Communists must learn this method in order to correctly analyze the history and current situation of the Chinese revolution and infer the future of the revolution." [14]

On January 14, 1858, Marx wrote to Engels, "I have also read Hegel's "Logic", which has helped me a lot in the way of material processing. If there is any time to do this kind of work in the future, I would like to use two or three printed sheets to explain the reasonable things that Hegel discovered but at the same time mysteriously, so that most people can Understand."[15] After the death of Marx, on April 2, 1883, Engels sent a letter to Peter Lazlović Razov, saying that Marx "had long wanted to write the "Dictionary Outline." ] But very regrettable, his wish has not been realized.

Lenin pointed out in the Outline of Hegel's Dialectics (Logic) that "although Marx did not leave 'logic' (in capital letters), he left behind the logic of "Capital" and should make full use of this logic. To solve this problem." [17] Lenin said this paragraph, Marx did not leave a philosophical form of dialectic, leaving the outline of the dialectic of the economic form of Capital. Judging from Lenin's "philosophical notes", he is planning to write a dialectical outline of philosophical form. He has made very important research on the dialectics of Marx's "Capital". He pointed out that "in the original sense, dialectics is the contradiction in the essence of the research object itself." [18] also pointed out that the essence of dialectics is called "the core of dialectics." [19] However, Lenin also failed to “solve this problem” and fulfill the task of writing a dialectical outline of philosophical forms.
The history developed to the stage of Mao Zedong. On the basis of Lenin's research, he contacted the rich revolutionary practice and deeply studied the materialist dialectics of Marx's Capital. So how does Mao Zedong study the dialectic of Capital? Judging from his reading of Capital in the economic category, he studied Marx's dialectics through Marx's discussion of the interrelationship and internal relations between these economic spheres. The economic categories of Marx's three volumes of Capital are more, the use of value and value, specific labor and abstract labor, relative value forms and equivalent forms, the relationship between people and the relationship between man and nature, money and capital. , constant capital and variable capital, absolute surplus value and relative surplus value; fixed capital and working capital, simple reproduction and expanded reproduction, extended reproduction and extension of internal reproduction; average profit rate and production price, virtual capital and Real capital, differential rent and absolute rent, distribution and production relations, employment of workers and capitalists, landowners, three major class relations, and so on. Marx said that the economic category is "the theoretical expression of the relationship of production." [20] These pairs of economic categories are the manifestations of the contradictory laws of dialectics. It can be said that the law of contradiction is the main axis from the beginning to the end of Marx's Capital.

Here, it is necessary to point out that Marx's narrative methods and research methods are different in form. He said, "Research must fully possess materials, analyze its various forms, and explore the internal connections of these forms. Only after this work is completed can the actual movement be properly described. Once this is done, the material Once the life is reflected in the concept, it is like a transcendental structure presented to us." [21] That is to say, in the research work, Marx is a concrete and abstract, based on the possession of materials and summing up historical experience, dialectically analyzing the entire capitalist mode of production and its laws; and his narrative method is the opposite, from Abstraction to concrete, the dialectical analysis of the overall capitalist production mode and its laws are reproduced. Explain the difference between the narrative method and the research method, and help to study the dialectic contradiction law of Marx's Capital.

Marx attaches great importance to the first chapter of the first volume of Capital, and this chapter, the two factors of commodity, the duality of labor, especially the value form, is more abstract and difficult to understand. Engels suggested that Marx have revised it. On June 16, 1867, Engels sent a letter to Marx saying, "Who can dialectically think, who can understand it." [22] On June 22, 1867, Marx wrote to Engels. The form of value is "partially decisive for the whole book", and it "includes all the secrets of all bourgeois forms of labor products in the bud." [23] Mao Zedong draws the cross-symbol symbol in the topic "Two poles of value performance: relative value form and equivalent form". Marx pointed out that "the secrets of all forms of value are hidden in this simple form of value. Therefore, it is really difficult to analyze this form." Marx discussed three problems in the analysis of this simple form of value:

First, two aspects of the contradiction between the relative value form and the equivalent form. Marx pointed out that "relative value forms and equivalent forms are two factors of mutual dependence, mutual condition and indivisibility of unified value expression. At the same time, they are mutually exclusive and mutually opposite poles of the same value. These two forms are always Assigned to different commodities that are related to each other through value performance." Mao Zedong discusses the cross-track symbol in this paragraph. Marx's passage is a two-dimensional discussion of the contradictory law of dialectics in the form of economic categories: the relative value form and the equivalent form of unified value expression are interdependent, inter-conditional and indivisible on the one hand, and this is the same contradiction law. Or unity); on the other hand, the mutual exclusion and opposition of the same value, that is, the opposite (or struggle). The same (or unity) and opposition (or struggle) constitute two aspects of the law of contradiction.

Second, the relative value form and the isomorphic form “play two different roles” in the same value performance. Marx discussed this issue based on the equation "20 yards cloth = 1 top". He pointed out that "the linen shows its value through the top, and the top becomes the performance material of this value. The former commodity takes the initiative and the latter commodity acts passively. The former commodity is expressed as relative value, or in relative value form. The latter commodity plays the role of equivalent, or is in the equivalent form." This argument is that in the performance of unified value, the relative value form plays an active role, while the equivalent form plays a passive role.

Third, the active and passive roles of the relative value form and the isoform form in the same value table are mutually transformed, which mainly depends on the position of a commodity in the performance of value. Marx pointed out that "whether a commodity is in a relative value form or in an equivalent form opposite to it, it depends entirely on its position in the performance of value at the time, that is, it depends on the commodity whose value is expressed, It is also a commodity that expresses value." Mao Zedong discussed the cross-track symbol in this paragraph. In the exchange of commodity market tides, the relative value forms of the same value and the active and passive roles of the equivalent forms are constantly transformed and transformed according to the changes in their status; and for the transformation, it is also contradictory and Caused by the struggle.

The above three articles are the main contents of Marx's elaboration of the contradictory laws of dialectics in the form of economic categories. The law of contradiction is the main method of Capital. Mao Zedong's important work "The Theory of Contradiction" is based on the main method of Marx's "Capital Theory". It comprehensively and systematically discusses the fundamental laws of dialectics and epoch-makingly completes the historical task of the materialist dialectics outline. If Marx's "Capital" is a dialectical outline written in the form of economics; then, seventy years later, Mao Zedong's "Contradictory Theory" is a dialectical outline written in philosophical form. Therefore, it can be said that "Contradiction" and "Capital" are the companion articles in the history of the development of Marxist materialist dialectics; and Lenin's "philosophical notes" is the intermediary in this development history.

Mao Zedong clearly pointed out at the beginning of "The Theory of Contradiction" that "the law of contradiction of things, that is, the law of the unity of opposites, is the most fundamental law of materialist dialectics." [24] He is from two kinds of cosmology; the universality of contradiction; the speciality of contradiction Sexuality; the main aspects of the main contradictions and contradictions; the identity and struggle of the contradictions; the status of confrontation in the contradiction and other aspects of the contradiction. He said, "We have clarified these issues, and we have fundamentally understood materialist dialectics."[25]
Mao Zedong said that the law of contradiction "is the fundamental law of nature and society, and thus the fundamental law of thinking. It is contrary to the metaphysical view of the universe. Its history of human understanding is a great revolution." [26] Then, the main points of the law of contradiction what is it then? Mao Zedong pointed out that "the contradiction exists in the process of all objective things and subjective thinking, and the contradiction runs through all processes. This is the universality and absoluteness of contradiction. The contradictory things and each side have their own characteristics. It is the particularity and relativity of contradiction. Contradictory things have the same nature according to certain conditions, so they can coexist in one unity and can transform each other to the opposite side. This is the particularity and relativity of contradiction. However, the contradictory struggles are constant, no matter when they live together, or when they transform each other, there is a struggle, especially when they transform each other, the performance of the struggle is more significant, which is contradictory. Universality and absoluteness. When we study the particularity and relativity of contradictions, we must pay attention to the main and non-major differences between contradictions and contradictions; when we study the universality and struggle of contradictions, Pay attention to the differences between the various forms of struggle of contradictions. Otherwise, you must make mistakes. If we have studied through this, we really understand the above. The key points are that we can break through the dogmatic ideas that are not conducive to our revolutionary cause in violation of the basic principles of Marxism-Leninism; we can also enable experienced comrades to organize their experiences and bring them to principle, while avoiding duplication of experience. The mistake of doctrine. These are some simple conclusions that we study the law of contradiction."[27]

On December 13 and 30, 1963, Mao Zedong pointed out in the "Instructions and Criticisms on Strengthening Mutual Learning, Overcoming Restraint, Pride and Complacency", "The Central Committee has repeatedly raised this issue with comrades and believes that one Communists must have Marxist dialectical thinking about the dichotomy between achievement and shortcomings, truth and error. Things (economic, political, ideological, cultural, military, party affairs, etc.) always move forward as a process. A process is developed by the contradictory two sides interconnected and fighting each other. This should be the general knowledge of Marxists. However, many of the central and local comrades rarely use this seriously. A kind of point of view to think about work. Their minds have long existed metaphysical methods of thought and cannot be freed. The so-called metaphysics is to deny the unity of opposites and opposites of things, (dichotomy), contradictions and opposites in certain conditions. Under the mutual transformation, to the opposite side of them, such a truth. "" Now must be reformed." "It is a system to learn from the good experiences, good styles, and good methods of other departments, provinces, other cities, other districts, and other units. This is a big problem. Please discuss it. It is also necessary to discuss it at the Central Working Conference and the Central Plenary Meeting." [28] Mao Zedong's remarks are extremely important. Although the text is not long, he has an outline of the main points of dialectics (dichotomy), which is easy to understand and The dialectic of cadres and mass propaganda has opened up a broad road.

In 1965, Mao Zedong’s endorsement in the "Marxist Philosophical Outline" edited by Li Da clearly stated that "the core of dialectics is the law of the unity of opposites. Other categories such as quality change, negation of negation, connection, development, etc. Etc., can be explained in the core law. The so-called connection is the connection between the opposite objects in time and space. The so-called development is the result of the struggle between the opposites. As for the mutual change of quality and the negation of negation, the essence of the phenomenon should be The formal content, etc., are explained under the guidance of the core laws. The methods of juxtaposing the old laws are not appropriate, which has been basically solved in Lenin, and our task is to explain and play. As for various The category (there may be more than a dozen) must be explained by the contradiction between things. For example, what is the essence can only say that essence is the main contradiction and main contradiction of things. So analogy [29] in Contradiction Twenty-eight years after the publication, Mao Zedong’s endorsement further discusses that the law of the unity of opposites is the fundamental law or basic law of dialectics; The categories of negation and affirmation, phenomena and essence, form and content, and connection and development are all manifestations of the law of the unity of opposites; these categories can only be explained under the guidance of the law of the unity of opposites.

On December 21, 1965, Mao Zedong’s "Hangzhou Speech" once again pointed out that "the dialectic has been said to be three laws in the past. Stalin said that it is a four-law. I mean there is only one basic law, that is, contradictions. Law. Quality and quantity, affirmation and negation, phenomena and essence, content and form, necessity and freedom, possibility and reality, etc. are all opposites of unity.” He also said, “People who want to engage in philosophy go to the factory and the countryside to engage in In a few years, I will transform the philosophical system, don't write as much as I used to, and don't write so much."

From the publication of Marx's Capital in 1867 to the Hangzhou Speech in 1965, Mao Zedong clearly pointed out that materialist dialectics only A basic law is the law of contradiction. This major conclusion has gone through ninety-eight years before and after, during which the Paris Commune, the Russian October Revolution and the Chinese Revolution, which shocked the world, broke out. In the long process of nearly a century, from Marx to Mao Zedong, materialist dialectics formed a fairly complete theoretical system, rich in content, concise and concise, and well-structured. It can be said that this theoretical system of materialist dialectics does not come out of thin air. It is formed by Mao Zedong on the basis of summing up the historical experience of the proletarian world revolution.

In the early 1950s, with the publication of Mao Zedong's works in China, Mao Zedong's theory of excellence and brilliant achievements were widely circulated around the world; in theory, especially the study of "Practice Theory" and "Contradictions" soon The formation of climax, the publication of research works is also more. For example, Japanese philosopher Matsumura pointed out that "Practice Theory" and "Contradictions" have pushed dialectical materialism to a new stage. It is a modern Marxist-Leninist classic for the people of the world who are striving for liberation. It is an inexhaustible and inexhaustible ideological weapon." [30] In 1986, the Japanese "People's New Newspaper" published an article commemorating the 10th anniversary of Mao Zedong's death, saying that Lenin's later years were in "philosophical notes." The propositions put forward in the paper "On the Dialectical Issues" were completed by Mao Zedong in "The Theory of Contradiction"; and the dialectic problem of the cognitive process involved in Lenin's "Philosophy Notes" was by Mao Zedong's "Practice" has done "exquisitely" "interpretation and explanation, thus developing epistemology." [31] The German Communist Workers Union pointed out that "Mao Zedong has always been our great mentor. His "Practical Theory" and "Contradictions" and other works have become textbooks in the revolutionary German Communist Party. These works are our party. The guiding work of the construction." [32] In 1984, the American philosopher Norman Levin's book "Internal Dialogue Dialogue" pointed out that "the long history of dialectics has brought us to China." "Mao Zedong's success ended the dialectic thinking. For nearly two centuries, we have examined the idealistic form of dialectics in Hegel, the materialist form of Marx, the physics and philosophy of Engels, and the re-hegelization of Lenin. Now let us Study Mao Zedong’s dialectic.” “The French Revolution began in 1789, and a revolution swept the world from Paris to Beijing and beyond. No matter how people describe the dramatic changes of these two centuries, its globality and its The major structural changes brought about are undeniable facts." "The Chinese Communists have made important examples of the success of these anti-imperialist uprisings. This book cannot ignore Mao Zedong. In fact, he told people the inevitable conclusion of this movement. "From Paris to Beijing, from Robespierre to Mao Zedong's movement, formed a single two centuries." In this era, dialectics is expressed both as a philosophy and as a political-revolutionary strategy. "Mao Zedong's main contribution lies in the politics of dialectics - the refinement of revolutionary strategies." "In order to understand dialectics, it is necessary to study Mao Zedong. However, Mao Zedong did not end the evolution of dialectics itself; he just ended "The special stage of dialectics"; "Although Mao Zedong has made important contributions to the departure of this new philosophy and strategy." [33] It is thought that the 1997 Dialogue Internal Dialogue is in When published in China, the author Norman Levin said in "To the Chinese readers" that the issue discussed in this book "is essentially a product of social changes caused by the Vietnam War in the 1960s. "[34]

As mentioned above, Mao Zedong's significant contribution to Marxist materialist dialectics is mainly based on Marx's Capital. Engels pointed out that Marx's "all theoretical content is derived from the study of political economy." [35] History shows that Capital is an inexhaustible theoretical treasure house of the proletariat and its political parties and Marxists.

3. Mao Zedong’s reading of Capital is the theory, line and policy for the formulation of the Chinese revolution.

Mao Zedong's reading of Capital is a combination of practice and solving practical problems. For example, in the Central Chengdu Conference in March 1958, Mao Zedong transcribed the twentieth chapter of "The Historical Investigation of Merchant Capital" from the third volume of his "Capital", which deals with bourgeois economics. The commentary and critical part of the doctrine. Marx pointed out that "the initial theoretical investigation of modern production methods - mercantilism" will inevitably start from the circulation process and its surface phenomenon when it is independent of the commercial capital movement, so it only grasps an appearance. Part of it is in feudal production. The initial period of change, the period of modern production, has had an overwhelming effect on it (commercial capital). The real science of modern economy began when the theoretical investigation of the transition from the circulation process to the production process." Mao Zedong Transcribe this part, and ask a question: “From production, or from exchange and distribution?” [36] as a meeting study document. Mercantilism is the immature bourgeois economics in the early days of capitalism. They study the superficial phenomenon of the economy, not the inherent essence of the economy. Marx pointed out that "the real bourgeois economic field was the field of commodity circulation." [37] Mercantilists do not understand the origin and essence of money. From the standpoint of commercial capitalists, they regard money as the only wealth. Foreign trade is the only source of wealth, and profits are bought and sold in the field of circulation. They advocate that the state must intervene in the economy and vigorously develop foreign trade. They regard money as the purpose of circulation, and money is the motive and goal of people to engage in activities. Mercantilism is not the real science of studying capitalist economy. The classical economics of the bourgeoisie is "the true science of the modern economy", which begins with the theoretical study of the capitalist production process. This discussion of Marx tells people that production is decided to exchange (circulation) and distribution, not the other way around. Therefore, research to solve the problem of exchange (circulation) and distribution must start from production. Mao Zedong excerpted and printed Marx's passage, the purpose of which was to solve the problem of wrong tendencies in economic work at that time.

While reading "Capital", Mao Zedong also paid great attention to the trend of dialectical materialism in reality, because dialectical materialism is the soul of Capital. On February 8, 1960, Mao Zedong recited the famous statement of Capital in his conversation about the issue of the relationship between existence and thinking: "It is still the words of Marx that the words are 'moved into the human mind and "The things that have been transformed in the human mind." ("Mao Zedong's Reading Socialist Political Economics Comments and Talks" (below), p. 715) This statement, in the preservation of Guo Dali, Wang Yanan's two sets of translations Mao Zedong has a symbol for capitalism. Mao Zedong used Marx's classic statement to discuss the relationship between concept and existence. He said, "Existence is first nature, and concept is second nature." As long as we affirm this one, we will draw a line with idealism. Then we must further solve the problem of whether the objective existence can be recognized and how to recognize it. Or what Marx said, the concept is 'the material that has been transformed into the human mind and transformed in the human mind' (Capital, Volume 1, Second Edition). It is right to say that concept and existence cannot be equal, but it is wrong to say that there is no identity between concept and existence. "[38]

Mao Zedong is proficient in Capital. During the rectification of Yan'an in 1941, Mao Zedong wrote nine important articles to criticize Wang Ming's "Left-Left" opportunist line. One of the articles pointed out that "Marx said that people are different from bees, that is, people before building houses. There is a pattern of the house in the mind." These words of Marx are his discussion of the relationship between man and nature in the third chapter of Chapter 5, "Labor Process" of Capital. The original text says: "The bee building hive and the skills make many architects feel embarrassed. But the most crappy architect from the beginning is better than the most dexterous bee, before he used the beeswax to build the hive. It has been built in his own mind." [39] Mao Zedong used the example in Capital to point out the relationship between human labor and nature in Marx's discussion, "We want to build the house of the Chinese revolution, It is also necessary to have a pattern of the Chinese revolution. Not only must there be a large pattern, but also a total pattern, there must be many small patterns and sub-patterns. These patterns are nothing else, that is, the objective actual situation we obtained in the practice of the Chinese revolution. The active reflection (on domestic class relations, on domestic ethnic relations, on the relationship between international countries, and on the dynamic relationship between international countries and China). [40] What is to be explained here is that Mao Zedong’s “big picture, total pattern” designed for the Chinese revolution is the theory, line and policy of the Chinese revolution; and “small pattern,” “divisional pattern” refers to economy and politics. Specific policies in various aspects such as ideology, culture, military affairs, and party affairs, in order to achieve "big patterns, total drawings." Mao Zedong's purpose of reading and studying Capital is to analyze and study various class relations at home and abroad according to the practical requirements and historical experience under the guidance of the basic theory of Marx's work, and to design and formulate China's revolutionary theories and routes. And policy is the unity of objective reality and conscious initiative, guiding the Chinese revolution to a great victory that shocked the world. And Wang Ming and other lords are "subjectives, because all their revolutionary patterns, big and small, total and subordinate, are not based on objective reality and do not conform to objective reality." "Their pictures are not scientific, but subjective and random. They are a mess. Since the masters don't know the world at all, they want to transform the world. The result is not only breaking their own skulls, but also guiding a group of people to break through. The brain shell. The lords are the nephew of the inevitable nature of the Chinese revolution, but they want to act as a guide for people. It is really called 'the blind rides the hummer, and the night is near the deep pool'."[41]

In the final analysis, "Capital" is to study the internal relations, the nature of struggle, its characteristics and development trends in the confrontation between the two classes of the capitalist society, the proletariat and the bourgeoisie. Marx pointed out that "class struggle must lead to the dictatorship of the proletariat"; "this dictatorship is only a transition to the elimination of all classes and into a classless society." [42] Mao Zedong not only used the basic theory of Capital, but also formulated theories, lines, and policies of China's new-democratic revolution, and also formulated theories, lines, and policies of China's socialist revolution and socialist construction.

Mao Zedong used the basic principles of Capital to propose the general line and overall tasks of China's transitional period. In August 1953, he pointed out that "from the establishment of the People's Republic of China and the completion of socialist transformation, this is a transitional period. The party's general line and overall tasks during this transitional period are to be quite long. In the period of time, basically realize the industrialization of the country and the socialist transformation of agriculture, handicrafts, and capitalist industry and commerce. This general line should be a beacon to shine through our work. If all work leaves it, it must make a right or a 'left' The mistakes." "Many principles and policies of this general line have been proposed in the resolution of the Second Plenary Session of the Party in March 1949, and have already been resolved in principle." [43]

Before the liberation of our country, it was a semi-colonial and semi-feudal society. Under such historical conditions, Mao Zedong divided China's capitalism into two parts: bureaucratic capital and national capital. Their ratio is "eight to two." "We confiscate all the bureaucratic capital after liberation, and we have eliminated the main part of Chinese capitalism." [44] "The confiscation of these capitals to the people's republics led by the proletariat has enabled the People's Republic to grasp the economic lifeline of the country. Make the state-owned economy a leading component of the entire national economy.

This part of the economy is a socialist economy." [45] This will help transform national capital. National capital still has both positive and negative effects during the transition period. Therefore, Mao Zedong pointed out that the national capitalism is a policy of utilization, restriction and transformation; at the same time, it adopts the method of state capitalism and redemption; it also proposes the task of transforming the bourgeois elements and combining the reform of ownership with the transformation of people. Mao Zedong said that the transformation of China's national capital "this thing has been done so quickly and smoothly is closely related to the fact that we regard the contradiction between the working class and the national bourgeoisie as internal contradictions among the people." [46]

China has a wealth of experience in dealing with the bourgeoisie and has universal significance. Mao Zedong pointed out that "Western European countries and the United States, the level of development of capitalism is very high, a small number of monopoly enterprises occupy a dominant position, but also a large number of small and medium-sized capitalists. It is said that the capital of the United States is concentrated and scattered. These national revolutions have been successful. What about small and medium-sized capitalists? Are they all confiscated? There is no doubt about monopoly capital to be confiscated. Is it possible for small and medium-sized capitalists to adopt state capitalism to transform them?" 47]

Agricultural cooperation and socialist transformation of private capitalist industries are closely related. The spontaneous forces of capitalism in rural small-scale production are the social basis of urban capitalist activities. Mao Zedong pointed out: "Our goal of the transformation of agricultural socialism is to root the source of capitalism in the vastest land of the countryside." [48] The peasants embarked on the collectivized socialist road, "the bourgeoisie will find itself in Completely isolated status." [49] In that year, Mao Zedong pointed out: "We now have two alliances: one is the alliance of peasants and the other is the alliance of the national bourgeoisie." The two alliances are interactive. "The two alliances, the alliance with the peasants is the main, the basic, the first; the alliance with the bourgeoisie is temporary, the second. These two alliances, in countries like ours, are now economically backward, now necessary". [50] The

social transformation of individual handicraft industry is also an important part of the three major socialist transformations. This part is individual ownership and is fundamentally different from the nature of the capitalist economy. Handicraft output accounted for a quarter of the country's industrial output. This figure illustrates the importance of individual handicrafts in the national economy. Mao Zedong also formulated specific routes and policies for the socialist transformation of individual handicrafts.

The general line of the transitional period and the overall task of socialist industrialization and the socialist transformation of the private ownership of the means of production are inextricably linked, interconnected and mutually reinforcing. Mao Zedong pointed out that the socialist transformation of private ownership of the means of production is a socialist revolution, and the purpose of this revolution is "to liberate the productive forces" [51], which is the social condition for realizing the industrialization of the socialist countries; and the industrialization of the socialist countries is The socialist system lays the material foundation. Here, Mao Zedong put forward the principle of simultaneous socialist revolution and industrialization of the socialist country. On the eve of the founding of the People's Republic of China, Mao Zedong put forward such a policy in the report of the Second Plenary Session of the Seventh Party Congress. He pointed out that after the founding of the People's Republic of China, we will "resolutely fight against the imperialists, the Kuomintang, and the bureaucratic bourgeoisie, and overcome these enemies step by step. At the same time, we will begin our construction cause." "From our takeover of the city From the beginning of the day, our eyes will be restored and developed to the production of this city. We must avoid blindly chaos and chaos and forget the central task." "The central task of the party here is to mobilize all forces to recover and The development of production is the focus of all work. Similarly, cultural undertakings must be restored and developed." [52] These important expositions of Mao Zedong have actually put forward guidelines for both revolution and construction.

After the completion of the historical task of socialist transformation of private ownership of production materials, Mao Zedong’s report on "The Ten Major Relations" (April 25, 1956) is based on the experience of the Soviet Union and summarizes China's Experience has put forward the theory of how to build a socialist general route in a fast and sound province. It can be said that "On the Ten Major Relationships" is the duality of Mao Zedong's use of the economic category of "Capital", that is, the law of the unity of opposites, to analyze the relationship between these aspects, and to mobilize all positive factors to serve the example of socialist construction. This is the theoretical basis of the general line of socialist construction.

In 1958, Mao Zedong presided over the meeting in Nanning and Chengdu, and put forward the "16 working methods", which formed the "general line of efforts to build up the socialism and strive for the upper reaches. In May of the same year, the Second Session of the Eighth Party Congress formally adopted the general line of socialist construction.

The basic points of the general line of socialist construction are: mobilizing all positive factors, correctly handling contradictions among the people, consolidating and developing socialist ownership and collective ownership of the whole society, consolidating the dictatorship of the proletariat and the international unity of the proletariat; continuing to complete the economic front and the political front. At the same time as the socialist revolution on the ideological front, the technological revolution and the cultural revolution are gradually realized; under the conditions of priority development of heavy industry, both industry and agriculture are simultaneously carried out; under the conditions of centralized leadership, comprehensive planning, and division of labor, central industries and localities Industry is at the same time; large enterprises and small and medium-sized enterprises are simultaneously doing the same. Through these, we will build China into a great socialist country with modern industry, modern agriculture, modern science and technology and modern national defense.

The fundamental problem of the revolution is the issue of political power. Seizing power and consolidating political power are the two historical tasks of the proletarian revolution. The first historical task of the proletarian revolution was a violent revolution, armed seizure of power and the establishment of a socialist system. These aspects of theory and policy were solved by Marx and Lenin. This is the epoch-making contribution of Marx and Lenin in the history of the development of Marxism. Then, the second historical task of the proletarian revolution, consolidating political power, continuing the revolution to prevent peaceful evolution and capitalist restoration, was solved by Mao Zedong in terms of theory and policy. This is Mao Zedong’s epoch-making contribution in the history of Marxism development. The two historical tasks of the proletarian revolution, which were historically put forward in practice and resolved from the theoretical and policy aspects, were never subjective wishes, but were determined by historical conditions and struggle tasks at that time.

The theory of consolidating the dictatorship of the proletariat is the theory of continuing the revolution under the dictatorship of the proletariat. The main points of this theory are as follows:

First, the socialist society is a fairly long historical stage. In the historical stage of socialism, there are still classes, class contradictions and class struggles. There are struggles between socialism and capitalism, and there is a danger of capitalist restoration. Therefore, we must continue the revolution.

Second, the focus of the revolution is on those who are taking the capitalist roads within the party and taking back the power they have usurped.
Third, the most important form of the revolution is the great revolution of the proletarian culture. Mao Zedong pointed out: "This great proletarian cultural revolution is absolutely necessary and timely for the consolidation of the dictatorship of the proletariat, the prevention of capitalist restoration, and the building of socialism." [53]

These three aspects constitute the theoretical system of Mao Zedong's continued revolution under the dictatorship of the proletariat. This theoretical system shows that Maoism is a new stage in the development of Marxism-Leninism.

Citation Index
[1] Selected Works of Lenin, Vol. 2, p. 580, People's Publishing House, 2nd edition, 1972.
[2] Selected Works of Marx and Engels, Vol. 2, p. 269, People's Publishing House, 1972.
[3] The Complete Works of Marx and Engels, Vol. 23, p. 36, People's Publishing House, 1972.
[4] Selected Works of Mao Zedong, Vol. III, p. 834.
[5] Marx and Engels, Capital Letters, 196th, People's Publishing House, 1976.
[6] The Complete Works of Marx and Engels, Vol. 23, pp. 35-36, People's Publishing House, 1972.
[7] Engels "Anti-Du Lin" (translated by Wu Liping), People's Publishing House published the first edition of the 1963 version of the large book, page 5 (a total of 6 volumes).
[8] Selected Works of Marx and Engels, Vol. 1, pp. 242, 244, People's Publishing House, 1972.
[9] Selected Works of Lenin, Vol. 1, p. 10, People's Publishing House, 1972.
[10] Mao Zedong's Philosophical Annotated Collection, p. 444, Central Literature Publishing House, 1997.
[11] The second edition of Lenin's Selected Works, pp. 332-333, published by the People in 1972.
[12] Marx and Engels, Capital Letters, 456, 458, 461, 462 pages, People's Publishing House, 1976 edition.
[13] Marx and Engels, Capital Letters, 46th edition, People's Publishing House, 1976 edition.
[14] Selected Works of Mao Zedong, Vol. 1, pp. 307, 308.
[15] "Marx and Engels "Capital" Letters, p. 121 People's Publishing House, 1976 edition.
[16] Marx and Engels, Capital Letters, 412th edition, People's Publishing House, 1976 edition.
[17] The Complete Works of Lenin, vol. 55, p. 290, People's Publishing House, 2nd edition, 1990.
[18] The Complete Works of Lenin, Vol. 55, p. 213, People's Publishing House, 2nd edition, 1990.
[19] The Complete Works of Lenin, vol. 55, pp. 305, 192, People's Publishing House, 2nd edition, 1990.
[20] Selected Works of Marx and Engels, Vol. 2, p. 143, People's Publishing House, 1972.
[21] The Complete Works of Marx and Engels, Vol. 23, pp. 23-24, People's Publishing House, 1972.
[22] Marx and Engels, Capital Letters, 214, People's Publishing House, 1976.
[23] Marx and Engels, Capital Letters, pp. 215-216, People's Publishing House, 1976.
[24] Selected Works of Mao Zedong, Vol. 1, p. 299.
[25] Selected Works of Mao Zedong, Vol. 1, p. 299.
[26] Selected Works of Mao Zedong, Vol. I, p. 336.
[27] Selected Works of Mao Zedong, Vol. I, pp. 336-337.
[28] Mao Zedong's Manuscripts since the Founding of the People's Republic of China, Vol. 10, pp. 442-443.
[29] Mao Zedong's Manuscripts since the founding of the People's Republic of China, Vol. 11, pp. 502-504.
[30] "The Study of Mao Zedong's Philosophical Thoughts Abroad", p. 116, The Central Party School Press, 1993 edition.
[31] "The Study of Mao Zedong's Philosophical Thoughts in Foreign Countries", p. 117, the Central Party School Press, 1993 edition.
[32] "Worldly mourning Mao Zedong", p. 101.
[33] [United States] Norman Levin, "Internal Dialogue Dialogue", pp. 401-402, Yunnan People's Publishing House, 1997 edition.
[34] [United States] Norman Levin, "Internal Dialogue Dialogue," page 5, Yunnan People's Publishing House.
[35] Selected Works of Marx and Engels, Vol. 2, p. 116, People's Publishing House, 1972.
[36] Volume 168 of the 67th volume of Mao Zedong's Manuscript since the founding of the People's Republic of China.
[37] The Complete Works of Marx and Engels, Vol. 13, p. 149.
[38] Mao Zedong's Reading Notes and Talks on Socialist Political Economy (2), p. 715.
[39] The Complete Works of Marx and Engels, Vol. 23, p. 202, People's Publishing House, 1972.
[40] Selected Readings of Mao Zedong's Works, vol. 486. People's Publishing House, 1986 edition.
[41] Selected Readings of Mao Zedong's Works, vol. 486. People's Publishing House, 1986 edition.
[42] Selected Works of Marx and Engels, Vol. 4, pp. 332-333.
[43] Selected Works of Mao Zedong, Vol. 5, p. 89.
[44] Mao Zedong's Anthology, Volume 8, page 114.
[45] Selected Works of Mao Zedong, Vol. 4, p. 1431.
[46] Selected Works of Mao Zedong, Vol. 4, p. 1382.
[47] Mao Zedong's Reading Notes and Talks on Socialist Political Economy (1), p. 112.
[48] ​​Selected Works of Mao Zedong, Vol. 5, p. 196.
[49] Selected Works of Mao Zedong, Vol. 5, p. 197.
[50] Selected Works of Mao Zedong, Vol. 5, pp. 197-198.
[51] Volume 2 of Volume 6 of Mao Zedong's Manuscript since the founding of the People's Republic of China.
[52] Selected Works of Mao Zedong, Vol. 4, pp. 1428-1429.
[53] Mao Zedong's Manuscript since the founding of the People's Republic of China, Vol. 12, p. 593.

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