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Hegel And Dialectical Materialism by DEBORIN Abram 1929

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Post 09 Mar 2019, 16:07
Deborin was originally a Menshevik and Plekhanov wrote the intro to his book on Dialectical Materialism in 1913. After 1917, he became one of the main Soviet philosophers leading the Dialecticians against the Bukharanite Mechanists. But in turn Mitin accused his of "menshevizing idealism". Mao's famous "On Contradiction" starts with an attack on the Deborin School. This was his work on Hegel, his overly Hegelian dialectics probably lead to the accusations of "idealism". ... mLENINCREW

And as a supplement a pro-Deborin history of Soviet philosophy, critical of Mitin and the Stalinist influence on DiaMAt ... Philosophy

Deborin, Abram Moiseevich
(pseudonym of A. M. Ioffe). Born June 4 (16), 1881, in the small town of Upyna, now in Silale Raion, Lithuanian SSR; died Mar. 8, 1963, in Moscow. Soviet philosopher. Academician of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR (1929). Born into a petit bourgeois family. Became a Social Democrat in 1903 and was a Menshevik from 1907 to 1917. Member of the CPSU from 1928.

Deborin graduated from the faculty of philosophy of the University of Bern in 1908. Beginning in 1905 he conducted a struggle against Machism. After 1920, he was engaged in research and editorial work and teaching. From 1926 to 1930 he was managing editor of the journal Pod znamenem marksizma (Under the Banner of Marxism). In 1935 he began to work in the Academy of Sciences of the USSR. In the 1920’s he criticized mechanism in defending materialist dialectics. In the late 1920’s and early 1930’s, Deborin and his group, which was in charge of the journal Pod znamenem marksizma, were subjected during debate to criticism for errors; the errors consisted of an underestimation of the Leninist stage of Marxist philosophy, a certain separation of philosophy from practice, and efforts to link the dialectic of Marx to the idealistic dialectic of Hegel.

The resolution of the Central Committee of the ACP (Bolshevik) of Jan. 25, 1931, on the journal Pod znamenem marksizma noted that “on a number of highly important questions” the Deborin group had adopted positions of “Menshevizing idealism” (see “O partiinoi i sovetskoi pechati,” Sb. dokumentov, 1954, p. 407). From the 1930’s to the 1950’s, Deborin wrote a series of works on the history of sociopolitical doctrines of modern times and the history of the philosophy of Marxism. Deborin was awarded two orders and also medals.

“Gegel’ i dialekticheskii materializm.” In G. W. F. Hegel, Soch., vol. 1. Moscow-Leningrad, 1929.
Dialektika i estestvoznanie, 4th ed. Moscow-Leningrad, 1930.
Lenin i krizis noveishei fiziki, 2nd ed. Leningrad, 1930.
Filosofiia i marksizm: Sb. st., 3rd ed. Moscow-Leningrad, 1930.
Vvedenie v filosofiiu dialekticheskogo materializma, 6th ed. Moscow-Leningrad, 1931.
Karl Marks i sovremennost’. Moscow-Leningrad, 1933.
Sotsialno-politicheskie ucheniia novogo i noveishego vremeni, vol. 1. Moscow, 1958.
Filosofiia i politika. Moscow, 1961.

DEBORIN (present. Loffe ) Abram Moiseevich [4 (16) June 1881, metro station Upino, Lithuania - March 8, 1963, Moscow] - Russian philosopher. After graduating from the Faculty of Philosophy of the University of Bern (1908), he participates in the revolutionary movement. From 1903 a Social Democrat, in 1907–17 a Menshevik. After the October Revolution - the philosophizing ideologue of Bolshevism, will teach in the Communist University. Ya.M.Sverdlova and the Institute of Red Professorship. Works at the Institute of Karl Marx and F. Engels; in 1924–31 director of the Institute of Philosophy. In 1926–30, editor-in-chief of the journal Under the Banner of Marxism. From 1929 - academician, in 1935–45 -Member of the Presidium of the USSR Academy of Sciences. Edited by Deborin were published scientific publications of the classics of materialistic philosophy, the collection of Hegel's 15 tons. According to Deborin, dialectics as the science of universal connections and real world relations is applicable not only in socio-historical practice, but also in any area of ​​concrete scientific knowledge . As a general methodology of scientific research, materialistic dialectics is interpreted by Deborin as an ideology, obligatory for scientists, including natural scientists. In the 1920s. was the official philosopher of power in the 1930s. subjected to criticism as "Menshevik idealist." In the 1950s dealt mainly with the history of socio-political thought.


1. Dialectical materialism. SPb., 1909;

2. Ludwig Feuerbach . Personality and worldview. M., 1923;

3. Hegel and dialectical materialism. - In the book: Hegel . Соч., Т. 1. М. –Л., 1929;

4. Dialectics and natural science. M. - L., 1930;

5. Philosophy and Marxism. M – L., 1930;

6. Introduction to the philosophy of dialectical materialism. M. - L., 1931;

7. Socio-political teachings of the new and modern times, vol. 1-3. M., 1958–67;

8. Philosophy and politics. M., 1961.


1. Yakhot I. Suppression of philosophy in the USSR: 20–30 - “VF”, 1991, №9.

Post 09 Mar 2019, 17:50
Annex 1

Plan "Philosophical Encyclopedia" Abram Deborin

Division One (dialectical materialism)

I. The problem of philosophy in Marxism
II. Dialectical materialism as a worldview

Dialectical materialism as a worldview
Criticism of idealism: a) phenomenalism, b) criticism, c) intuitivism, d) objective idealism
Matter problem
The problem of time and space
Psychological problem: a) criticism of rational and empirical psychology; b) reflexology and psychology; c) Freudianism
Iii. Basic principles of materialistic dialectics

Dialectics and formal logic. Criticism of the laws of formal logic. Criticism of the formal logical doctrine of the concept, judgment and reasoning
Criticism of the principles of mathematical logic
Inductive logic and consideration of its principles
The development of logical forms of thought: a) thinking and speech; pre-logical thinking
Categories of thinking and the historical process of knowledge: a) absolute, relative and objective truths; dialectic of subject and object; practice; theory of knowledge in the dialectical worldview; b) the main stages in the history of logic
The laws of materialistic dialectics. The main laws are: a) the problem of movement and its contradictions; b) the transfer of quantity to quality and back; measure; c) the role of the statistical method in scientific research; d) the essence and phenomenon; correlative categories of entities; the problem of law; e) separate categories: 1) the problem of chance, 2) causality and teleology, 3) part and whole, 4) form and content; f) the law of negation of negation; g) the doctrine of the concept, judgment and inference in dialectical logic; h) the relationship of the main forms of movement in reality; i) analytical and synthetic knowledge
Classification of Sciences. Historical critical and systematic essay
Division Two (History of Philosophy)

Introduction The history of philosophy as a science (content and method)
A. Philosophy of Eastern Countries.
The main currents of philosophy in connection with socio-economic structures
B. Philosophy of European countries.
I. The philosophy of the slave society. General historical and sociological sketch of the slave-owning society (Greece, Rome)

The nomination of trade groups, the fight against slave-owning nobility: a) Ionian natural philosophy, Heraclitus; b) Pythagoreanism; c) Eleatics; d) junior physicists; e) atomistics
The heyday of trade relations: a) sophists; b) Socrates
Epoch of social and economic reaction: a) Socratic schools; b) Plato; c) Aristotle
The era of the economic and political expansion of Greece and Rome: a) idealistic currents: 1) Academy 2) Likey; b) the development of stoicism; c) materialism - Epicurus and his school, Lucretius; d) skepticism; e) eclecticism
The era of the expansion of the slave society: a) the development of mystical teachings (Novopifagoreizm)); b) philosophical struggle in early Christianity (Gnostics, apologists); c) Novoplatonism - Plotinus, Iamblichus, Proclus; d) the development of Christian ideology

II.Philosofiya feudal society. General historical and sociological essay feudal

The emergence of scholasticism and its first results
Realism and nominalism; Abelard
Aristotle's use of Christian thought (large systems)
Jewish philosophy
Arabic philosophy
Elements of materialism and empiricism. R. Bacon
Iii. The era of the formation of a capitalist society. General sketch of the Renaissance and Reformation

Philosophical humanism (the revival of Plato and other ancient schools, reinterpreting Aristotle)
Religious Reformation and Mysticism
Naturalism: a) the expansion of the geographical and cosmographic horizons; b) the fight against Aristotelian natural philosophy; c) materialistic and atheistic tendencies
Skepticism - Montaigne
Iv. The development of merchant capitalism. General historical and sociological essay

The tradition of ancient materialism (Gassendi)
Materialism on the basis of rationalism: a) Descartes, his supporters and opponents; b) Spinoza
The development of rationalism in Leibniz.
Materialism on the basis of empiricism and sensationalism: a) Bacon b) Hobbes; c) Locke
The fate of English philosophy after Locke: a) free-thinker materialism: Toland, Gartley, Priestley; b) Berkeley idealism; c) skepticism of Hume; d) common sense philosophy
The epoch of the 18th century French materialism: a) predecessors: 1) Beyle’s skepticism, 2) early Melle, materialism and atheism, 3) Condillac, 4) Voltaire and deism; b) the classics of materialism: 1) Lametri, 2) Diderot and Encyclopedia, 3) Helvetius, 4) Holbach, 5) Jean-Baptiste Robinet, 6) Léger Marie Deschamps 7) Charles Bonnet; c) the development of economic and socio-political ideas: 1) Montesquieu, 2) Rousseau, Mably, Morelli, 3) physiocrats and economists; d) opponents of materialism: 1) official Catholicism, 2) mysticism; d) the materialists of the Great French Revolution
Philosophy of the German Enlightenment and Kant: a) idealistic school philosophy b) materialistic tendencies in the philosophy of the Enlightenment; c) Kant: 1) the subcritical period, 2) transcendental idealism, 3) elements of dialectics in the natural philosophical and critical works of Kant; d) supporters and opponents of critical reflection
V. The era of the development of industrial capitalism and the beginning of the class labor movement. General historical and sociological essay

Classical German idealism: a) the dialectical method of the immediate followers of Kant; Fichte; b) Schelling: 1) natural philosophy and romanticism, 2) philosophy of identity, 3) philosophy of revelation; c) Schelling natural philosophy school: Oken, Steffens, Oersted and the transition to Hegel; d) romance - Schlegel, Novalis; d) Hegel
The metaphysical systems and opponents of Hegel: a) Schleiermacher; b) Herbart; c) Schopenhauer; d) Lotze; d) Trendelenberg
The Hegel school and the struggle within Hegelianism: a) direct supporters of Hegel; b) right Hegelians; c) Hegelian left: 1) Strauss, 2) Bauer brothers; d) Stirner; d) Lassal
The general historical and sociological essay of the 40s and 50s: a) Germany; b) France; c) England
Feuerbach: a) anthropological materialism; b) social doctrines on the basis of Feuerbachianism
Natural Science Materialism (Buchner, Focht and Moleshot)
Marx and Engels: a) the idealistic period of their development; b) the overcoming of classical idealism, Hegelianism and Feuerbach; c) the development of dialectical materialism
Division three (modern philosophy)

I. Idealism.

Neo-Kantianism: a) Neo-Kantianism in Germany: 1) Lange, Liebman; 2) Marburg School; 3) Baden School; 4) social democratic neo-kantianism; b) Neo-Kantianism in England; c) Neo-Kantianism in America; d) Neo-Kantianism in Italy; e) Neo-Kantianism in Scandinavia; f) Neo-Kantianism in Japan and China
Pragmatism (in England, America, France, Italy, Germany, Japan)
Spiritualism, intuitivism
Neohegelianism: a) Hegelian school in Italy; b) the Neo-Hegelian movement in England; c) Hegelian school in Holland; d) Hegelian movement in Scandinavia; e) turn to Hegel in Germany; (e) Neo-Hegelianism in Japan and China; Neo-Hegelianism in America
Ii. Positivism and realism.

Critical realism
Iii. Materialistic trends and trends in modern philosophy

Natural science monism and monistic movement
Iv. Marxist philosophy in the West.

In Germany, France, England
In Bulgaria and the Balkan countries
In Italy
V. Russian philosophy

Echoes of French materialism in Russia
Influence of German classical idealists in Russia
Natural science materialism in Russia (Sechenov, etc.)
Positivism and evolutionism (Mikhailovsky, Lavrov, etc.)
Religious ontologism of the school of Solovyov
Tolstoy and Tolstoy
Neo-Kantianism Mysticism. Intuitivism N. Lossky.
Empiriocriticism in Russia
History of Philosophy in Ukraine
Empirio-Monism (Bogdanov)
Marxism in Russia (general essay)
Marxism in Ukraine
Philosophy in the USSR after October
Division Four (historical materialism)

I. Historical materialism as a science
II. The historical preparation of historical materialism

The main directions of the philosophy of history
The main directions in the philosophy of law and the state
The main directions in the philosophy of religion (in connection with the history of atheism)
Iii. Basic principles of historical materialism

The problem of society: definition, society and nature, society and state, the origin of the social form
The dialectic of social development: a) productive forces; b) production relations, change of socio-economic formations; c) basis and superstructure; d) the role of personality in history
Classes and class struggle: a) the definition, classes of various economic formations, the origin of a class society, new classes of capitalist society; b) classes transitional to socialism of society, the problem of the withering away of classes
The consignment
Social consciousness and ideology
The science
The problem of culture
Theory of revolution
Problem of nationality
Iv. Scientific communism

Types of socialism: a) reactionary socialism; b) bourgeois socialism (here, social reformism); c) petty-bourgeois socialism; d) utopian socialism; e) anarchism; e) revisionism; g) scientific communism: 1) the era of Marx and Engels 2) the era of Lenin
V. Criticism of bourgeois sociology

Organic School
Psychological School
Modern sociological school in Germany
M. Weber
Division Five (Dialectics of Natural Science)

Introduction The role of materialistic dialectics in natural science research

I. Dialectics of Mathematics

Principles of mathematical knowledge: a) mathematics and formal logic; b) mathematics and reality (dialectic of mathematics); mathematics and experience
Basic concepts of mathematics in the dialectical sense (number, dimension, space, size, set, order, group, limit, finite and infinite, position, movement, direction, discontinuity and continuity, rational and irrational, quantity and quality, validity, equality and inequality , function, dependence, contradiction, probability, chance, theorem, relation, variety, analysis and synthesis, prediction, proof, premise, identity and unity)
Basic axioms and postulates of mathematics (continuity postulates, combination axioms, order axioms, congruence axioms, concurrency axioms, Archimedes axioms, non-Euclidean axioms, imaginary axioms , etc. )
Relationships between the main disciplines of mathematics (arithmetic, algebra, geometry, analysis, topology, set theory , etc. )
The origin and development of mathematics in connection with the development of philosophy and the reverse influence of mathematics on philosophy
Modern trends in mathematics: a) idealistic schools; b) materialistic schools
The significance and limits of the applicability of the principles of mathematics in: a) inorganic sciences, b) biology, c) sociology
Ii. Dialectics of Inorganic Sciences

The basic principles of knowledge in the inorganic sciences: a) the generality and specificity of methods in connection with the specificity of the object; b) the reality and objectivity of phenomena and events; c) determinism and indeterminism; d) principles of causality: 1) functional dependence, 2) reason, reason, condition, sequential connection; e) observation and experiment; e) necessity and chance; g) dynamic and statistical regularity; h) discontinuity and continuity; i) indirect and direct conclusions; k) principle, theory and hypotheses; l) the principle of evolution (the evolution of stars, the evolution of the earth's crust, the evolution of elements); m) comparison; m) the first and second laws of thermodynamics; o) Hamilton's principle; o) law and rule; p) identity and equality; c) analysis and synthesis; r) induction and deduction; s) description and explanation; t) reducibility; x) prediction
Basic concepts of inorganic sciences: a) in physics (matter, energy, absolute and relative, closed system, space, time, length, degrees of freedom, molecule, atom, quantum, electron, potential, reversibility and irreversibility, work, constant , etc. d. , b) in the chemistry (including physical chemistry and colloid chemistry, biochemistry): affinity, valency periodic system , etc... ; c) in geology (including meteorology)
The interrelations of the disciplines of inorganic sciences among themselves and of the subdivisions within each discipline: a) in physics: 1) mechanics (foronomy and dynamics, including hydrodynamics, aerodynamics, acoustics), 2) electrodynamics (including optics), 3) thermodynamics, 4) radiation physics; b) in chemistry; c) in astronomy; d) in geology
The origin and development of basic views on inorganic nature in connection with the development of philosophy and the reverse impact of these views on philosophy
Modern trends in the inorganic sciences: a) idealistic schools; b) materialistic schools
The significance and limits of the applicability of the principles of inorganic sciences in: a) biology, b) sociology
Iii. Dialectics of Biology

The basic principles of knowledge in biology: a) generality and specificity in connection with the specificity of the object (zoology, botany, protistology); b) analysis and synthesis; c) induction and deduction; d) identity and unity; e) reducibility; e) prediction; g) the whole and part; h) reversibility and irreversibility; i) discontinuous and continuous; k) causality; l) expediency (transcendental, immanent, regulatory); m) dependence and connection (in the individual, the individuals among themselves, the individuals with the inorganic environment); m) quality and quantity (in systematics, morphology, ecology, chorology, chronology, genetics); o) correlation (in morphology, physiology, ecology, chorology and genetics); o) principles of ontogeny (ontogeny of an individual, ontogeny of communities); p) principles of phylogeny (individual taxonomic units, fauna and floras)
Basic concepts of biology: irritability, self-regulation, regeneration, restitution, polarity, structure and form, initiative, individual, death, cycle, homology and analogy, convergence and divergence, assimilation and dissimilation, reproduction, heredity, cell, trait, tropism and taxis, reflex, step diversity, integration and differentiation, adaptation, selection, function, organ, organelles , etc.
Relationships of biology disciplines: a) systematics, b) morphology, c) physiology, e) chorology, e) chronology, g) genetics
The origin and development of basic views on the body and its relationship with the surrounding nature in connection with the philosophy and the reverse impact of these views on philosophy
Modern trends in biology: a) idealistic schools; b) materialistic schools
The significance and limits of the applicability of the laws of biology in the social sciences (the question of the origin of man as the boundary question of zoology and sociology)
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